Pharmacological effects and lung-binding characteristics of a novel VIP analogue, [R15, 20, 21, L17]-VIP-GRR (IK312532)
Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences and COE Program in the 21st Century, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan.Regulatory Peptides (Impact Factor: 1.83). 01/2005; 123(1-3):201-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.regpep.2004.04.029
A novel VIP derivative, [R15, 20, 21, L17]-VIP-GRR (IK312532), relaxed potently the carbachol-induced contraction of guinea-pig isolated trachea with longer duration than that induced by VIP. IK312532 competed with [125I]VIP for the binding sites in the rat lung in a concentration-dependent manner. There was considerable decrease in specific [125I]VIP binding in each lobe of right and left lung 0.5 h after the intratracheal administration of IK312532 (50 microg/rat) as dry powder inhaler (DPI). Rosenthal analysis revealed that the administration of IK312532 (50 and 100 microg/rat)-DPI brought about a significant decrease of maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) for specific [125I]VIP binding in anterior and posterior lobes of rat right lung, suggesting a significant occupancy of lung VIP receptors. This effect by IK312532 in the posterior lobe of the right lung was dose-dependent and lasted until at least 2 h after the intratracheal administration. Furthermore, the antigen-evoked infiltration of granulocytes in the rat bronchiolar mucosa was markedly suppressed by the intratracheal administration of IK312532 (50 microg/rat)-DPI. In conclusion, the present study has shown that IK312532 exhibits long-lasting relaxation of tracheal smooth muscles and that the intratracheal administration of this peptide exerts a significant occupancy of lung VIP receptors as well as a suppression of the antigen-evoked infiltration of granulocytes in the bronchiolar mucosa. Thus, the formulation of IK312532 as DPI may be a pharmacologically useful drug delivery system for the therapy of pulmonary diseases such as asthma.
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- "The results obtained for each run at a 125 I-VIP concentration of 0.085 nM (i.e. about 7 times lower than the K d value obtained by Ohmori et al. ) are given in Table 2. Five different responses were calculated and their effects of the 8 factors and 3 dummy factors are given in Table 3. The detailed calculations are available in the Supplementary data section. "
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ABSTRACT: Corticosteroids are the mainstay treatment for most severe inflammatory disorders. Due to the considerable toxicity associated with their long-term use, there is a great need for alternative treatments. Recently, two closely related neuropeptides with potent neuromodulatory activities, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) have emerged as candidate molecules for the treatment of such pathologies. These peptides act primarily on three high affinity receptor subtypes expressed on multiple immune cell types, and orchestrate a cytokine response that is primarily anti-inflammatory. In this regard, systemic treatment with these peptides has been shown to greatly reduce the clinical symptoms and alter the pathogenic and cytokine profiles in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, septic shock, and multiple sclerosis. Likewise, VIP and PACAP receptor knockout and overexpressing mice show altered immune responses in different models. We review here data demonstrating the potential effectiveness of these peptides in immune disorders, discuss receptor pharmacology and signaling pathways, describe the development of receptor specific agonists and antagonists, and discuss pharmaceutical considerations relevant to the specific delivery of analogs to the appropriate targets.Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 02/2006; 6(2):151-63. DOI:10.2174/156802606775270288 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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