To our knowledge, there are no published population-based studies on the safety of the inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine among children.
To screen a large population of children for evidence of increased medical visits in the 2 weeks after influenza vaccination compared with 2 control periods. Secondary analyses included shorter risk periods and restricted age categories.
Self-control screening analysis. Children vaccinated from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1999, were randomly divided into 2 equal groups. In group 1, risks of outpatient, emergency department, and inpatient visits during the 14 days after vaccination were compared with the risks of visits in 2 control periods. Significant plausible medically attended events identified in group 1 were then analyzed in group 2, using the same 2 control periods. Medically attended events significant in both groups were considered potentially associated with vaccination and were assessed by medical record review.
Five managed care organizations in the United States.
Children younger than 18 years who received an influenza vaccination in one of the managed care settings (N = 251 600).
Among vaccinated children seen for a medically attended event, the odds of the visit occurring in the 2 weeks after vaccination vs during 1 of the 2 control periods.
Study participants incurred 1165, 230, and 489 different diagnoses during the 14 days after vaccination according to the outpatient, emergency department, and inpatient data, respectively. Four diagnoses were positively associated with the vaccine in both groups 1 and 2: impetigo, dermatitis, uncomplicated diabetes mellitus, and ureteral disorder not otherwise specified. After medical record review, impetigo (9 cases) in children 6 to 23 months old remained significantly associated with vaccination.
This large screening safety study did not reveal any evidence of important medically attended events associated with pediatric influenza vaccination.
"The antigenic presentation of seasonal influenza vaccines changes almost every year. Extensive data from passive surveillance systems and epidemiological studies supports the overall safety profile of Trivalent Influenza Vaccine (TIV) with few serious health events in adults and children       . However after initial licensure  there has been less focus on the reactogenicity profile with minimal attention given to the possible effects of changing antigenic composition and different immunogenicity and safety profiles across different brands. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate and compare rates of febrile events, including febrile convulsion, following immunisation with four brands of inactivated 2010 and 2011 influenza vaccine in NZ infants and children.
Retrospective telephone surveys of parents of infants and children who received at least one dose of the vaccines of interest.
184 NZ General Practices who received the vaccines of interest.
Recipients of 4088 doses of trivalent inactivated vaccines Fluvax(®), Vaxigrip(®), Influvac(®) and Fluarix(®) and/or monovalent Celvapan. Vaccinees were identified via the electronic Practice Management System and contacted consecutively.
Primary outcome was febrile convulsive seizure. Secondary outcomes were presence of fever plus other organ system specific symptoms.
The parental response rate was 99%. Of 4088 doses given, 865 were Fluvax(®), 2571 Vaxigrip(®), 204 Influvac(®), 438 Fluarix(®) and 10 Celvapan. Three febrile convulsions followed Fluvax(®), a rate of 35 per 10,000 doses. No convulsions occurred following any dose of the other vaccines. There were nine febrile events that included rigors, all following Fluvax(®). Fever occurred significantly more frequently following administration of Fluvax(®) compared with the other brands of vaccines (p<0.0001) and Fluvax recipients were more likely to seek medical attention. Influvac(®) also had higher rates of febrile reactions (OR 0.54, 0.36-0.81) than the other two brands Vaxigrip(®) (OR 0.21, 0.16-0.27) and Fluarix(®) (OR 0.10, 0.05-0.20). After multivariable analysis vaccine, European ethnicity and second dose of vaccine were significantly associated with reporting of fever within 24h of vaccination.
Influenza vaccines have different rates of reactogenicity in children which varies between ethnic groups. High rates of febrile convulsions and reactions in children receiving Fluvax(®) and to a lesser extent the higher fever rates in those receiving Influvac(®) compared with the other two brands of influenza vaccines in this study suggests that reactogenicity profiles need to be considered prior to national policy advice each season. The risk-benefit profile in children might not be equally favourable for all licensed paediatric influenza vaccines. More attention needs to be given to comparative research for all trivalent seasonal vaccines, and with all strain changes.
"Serious adverse reactions following seasonal influenza vaccination are rare    and include (febrile) seizures, anaphylaxis, exacerbation or new onset of asthma, GBS, oculo-respiratory syndrome (ORS) and Bell's palsy [25,27,35–38]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic several pandemic H1N1 vaccines were licensed using fast track procedures, with relatively limited data on the safety in children and adolescents. Different extensive safety monitoring efforts were put in place to ensure timely detection of adverse events following immunization. These combined efforts have generated large amounts of data on the safety of the different pandemic H1N1 vaccines, also in children and adolescents. In this overview we shortly summarize the safety experience with seasonal influenza vaccines as a background and focus on the clinical and post marketing safety data of the pandemic H1N1 vaccines in children. We identified 25 different clinical studies including 10,505 children and adolescents, both healthy and with underlying medical conditions, between the ages of 6 months and 23 years. In addition, large monitoring efforts have resulted in large amounts of data, with almost 13,000 individual case reports in children and adolescents to the WHO. However, the diversity in methods and data presentation in clinical study publications and publications of spontaneous reports hampered the analysis of safety of the different vaccines. As a result, relatively little has been learned on the comparative safety of these pandemic H1N1 vaccines - particularly in children. It should be a collective effort to give added value to the enormous work going into the individual studies by adhering to available guidelines for the collection, analysis, and presentation of vaccine safety data in clinical studies and to guidance for the clinical investigation of medicinal products in the pediatric population. Importantly the pandemic has brought us the beginning of an infrastructure for collaborative vaccine safety studies in the EU, USA and globally.
"The inactivated influenza vaccine is safe and well-tolerated in children [29,30]. It very rarely causes immediate allergic reactions and there is no evidence of an increase in asthma exacerbations . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Influenza vaccination in infants and children with existing health complications is current practice in many countries, but healthy children are also susceptible to influenza, sometimes with complications. The under-recognised burden of disease in young children is greater than in elderly populations and the number of paediatric influenza cases reported does not reflect the actual frequency of influenza.
Vaccination of healthy children is not widespread in Europe despite clear demonstration of the benefits of vaccination in reducing the large health and economic burden of influenza. Universal vaccination of infants and children also provides indirect protection in other high-risk groups in the community. This paper contains the Central European Vaccination Advisory Group (CEVAG) guidance statement on recommendations for the vaccination of infants and children against influenza. The aim of CEVAG is to encourage the efficient and safe use of vaccines to prevent and control infectious diseases.
CEVAG recommends the introduction of universal influenza vaccination for all children from the age of 6 months. Special attention is needed for children up to 60 months of age as they are at greatest risk. Individual countries should decide on how best to implement this recommendation based on their circumstances.
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