Article

Long-term amiodarone administration remodels expression of ion channel transcripts in the mouse heart

Department of Medical Physiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.95). 12/2004; 110(19):3028-35. DOI: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000147187.78162.AC
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The basis for the unique effectiveness of long-term amiodarone treatment on cardiac arrhythmias is incompletely understood. The present study investigated the pharmacogenomic profile of amiodarone on genes encoding ion-channel subunits.
Adult male mice were treated for 6 weeks with vehicle or oral amiodarone at 30, 90, or 180 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1). Plasma and myocardial levels of amiodarone and N-desethylamiodarone increased dose-dependently, reaching therapeutic ranges observed in human. Plasma triiodothyronine levels decreased, whereas reverse triiodothyronine levels increased in amiodarone-treated animals. In ECG recordings, amiodarone dose-dependently prolonged the RR, PR, QRS, and corrected QT intervals. Specific microarrays containing probes for the complete ion-channel repertoire (IonChips) and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction experiments demonstrated that amiodarone induced a dose-dependent remodeling in multiple ion-channel subunits. Genes encoding Na+ (SCN4A, SCN5A, SCN1B), connexin (GJA1), Ca2+ (CaCNA1C), and K+ channels (KCNA5, KCNB1, KCND2) were downregulated. In patch-clamp experiments, lower expression of K+ and Na+ channel genes was associated with decreased I(to,f), I(K,slow), and I(Na) currents. Inversely, other K+ channel alpha- and beta-subunits, such as KCNA4, KCNK1, KCNAB1, and KCNE3, were upregulated.
Long-term amiodarone treatment induces a dose-dependent remodeling of ion-channel expression that is correlated with the cardiac electrophysiologic effects of the drug. This profile cannot be attributed solely to the amiodarone-induced cardiac hypothyroidism syndrome. Thus, in addition to the direct effect of the drug on membrane proteins, part of the therapeutic action of long-term amiodarone treatment is likely related to its effect on ion-channel transcripts.

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