The concept of designations for hospital facilities that care for newborn infants according to the level of complexity of care provided was first proposed in 1976. Subsequent diversity in the definitions and application of levels of care has complicated facility-based evaluation of clinical outcomes, resource allocation and utilization, and service delivery. We review data supporting the need for uniform nationally applicable definitions and the clinical basis for a proposed classification based on complexity of care. Facilities that provide hospital care for newborn infants should be classified on the basis of functional capabilities, and these facilities should be organized within a regionalized system of perinatal care.
"All general neonatal, intermediate and neonatal intensive care (NICU) as well as mixed paediatric and neonatal intensive care units with more than 50% of admissions consisting of neonates were eligible with stratification according to the level of care: level 1 with special neonatal care; level 2 with high dependency care, short term intensive care and low birth weight care, and level 3 with comprehensive intensive care for extremely low birth weight infants available [23,24]. Departments, offering different levels of care were classified according to the highest level they provided. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estimates of prevalence are known to be affected by the design of cross-sectional studies. A pan-European study provided an opportunity to compare the effect of two cross-sectional study designs on estimates of medicines use.
A Service evaluation survey (SES) and a web-based point-prevalence study (PPS) were conducted as part of a European study of neonatal exposure to excipients. Neonatal units from all European Union countries plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and Serbia were invited to participate. All medicines prescribed to neonates were recorded during three-day and one-day study periods in the SES and PPS, respectively. In the PPS individual demographic and prescription data were also collected.
To compare the probabilities that a particular medicine would be reported by each study multilevel mixed effects logistic regression models with crossed random effects were applied. The relationship between medicines exposure at the unit and individual levels in the PPS data was assessed using polynomial regression with square root transformation.
Of 31 invited countries 20 and 21 with 115 and 89 units joined the SES and PPS, respectively. Out of 5,572,859 live births in invited countries in 2010 a higher proportion was covered by units participating in the SES compared to the PPS (11% vs 6%, respectively; OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.87-1.89). A greater number of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), manufacturers and trade names were registered in the SES compared to the PPS. High correlation between the two studies in frequency of use for each specified API was seen (R2 = 0.86). The average probability of a department to use a given API was greater in the SES compared to the PPS (OR 2.36; 95% CI 2.05-2.73) with higher frequency of use and longer average duration of prescription further increasing the difference. The polynomial regression model described the correlation between APIs exposure on unit and individual level well (R2 = 0.93).
The simple data structure and longer study period of the SES resulted in improved recruitment and higher likelihood of capture for a given API. The frequency of use at the unit level appears a good surrogate of individual exposure rates.
BMC Medical Research Methodology 07/2014; 14(1):89. DOI:10.1186/1471-2288-14-89 · 2.27 Impact Factor
"This situation may result in a higher risk of cross-infections
and a lack of qualified professionals trained exclusively in the care of
newborns.(22) The American
Academy of Pediatrics recommends that newborns should be assisted in exclusive units
with subdivisions according to the level of care complexity.(23) "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To describe the characteristics of physical therapy assistance to newborns and to provide a profile of physical therapists working in intensive care units in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.
This cross-sectional study was conducted in every hospital in São Paulo city that had at least one intensive care unit bed for newborns registered at the National Registry of Health Establishments in 2010. In each unit, three types of physical therapists were included: an executive who was responsible for the physical therapy service in that hospital (chief-physical therapists), a physical therapist who was responsible for the physical therapy assistance in the neonatal unit (reference-physical therapists), and a randomly selected physical therapist who was directly involved in the neonatal care (care-physical therapists).
Among the 67 hospitals eligible for the study, 63 (94.0%) had a physical therapy service. Of those hospitals, three (4.8%) refused to participate. Thus, 60 chief-PTs, 52 reference-physical therapists, and 44 care-physical therapists were interviewed. During day shifts, night shifts, and weekends/holidays, there were no physical therapists in 1.7%, 45.0%, and 13.3% of the intensive care units, respectively. Physical therapy assistance was available for 17.8±7.2 hours/day, and each physical therapist cared for 9.4±2.6 newborns during six working hours. Most professionals had completed at least one specialization course.
Most neonatal intensive care units in the city of São Paulo had physical therapists working on the day shift. However, other shifts had incomplete staff with less than 18 hours of available physical therapy assistance per day.
"Parents were recruited from an NHC setting at one University Hospital in Sweden. The infants were initially treated at a Level III NICU (Stark 2004), which provides care for approximately 1000 newborns annually, including extremely premature and critically ill infants. The NICU consists of two units with an aggregate 38 beds, including eight family rooms. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A descriptive study of parents' experiences with neonatal home care following initial care in the neonatal intensive care unit.
As survival rates improve among premature and critically ill infants with an increased risk of morbidity, parents' responsibilities for neonatal care grow in scope and degree under the banner of family-centred care. Concurrent with medical advances, new questions arise about the role of parents and the experience of being provided neonatal care at home.
An interview study with a phenomenological hermeneutic approach.
Parents from a Swedish neonatal (n = 22) home care setting were extensively interviewed within one year of discharge. Data were collected during 2011-2012.
The main theme of the findings is that parents experience neonatal home care as an inner emotional journey, from having a child to being a parent. This finding derives from three themes: the parents' experience of leaving the hospital milieu in favour of establishing independent parenthood, maturing as a parent and processing experiences during the period of neonatal intensive care.
This study suggests that neonatal home care is experienced as a care structure adjusted to incorporate parents' needs following discharge from a neonatal intensive care unit. Neonatal home care appears to bridge the gap between hospital and home, supporting the family's adaptation to life in the home setting. Parents become empowered to be primary caregivers, having nurse consultants serving the needs of the whole family. Neonatal home care may therefore be understood as the implementation of family-centred care during the transition from NICU to home.
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