Triple combination of irradiation, chemotherapy (pemetrexed), and VEGFR inhibition (SU5416) in human endothelial and tumor cells.
ABSTRACT This is the first preclinical report evaluating a trimodal therapy consisting of irradiation, chemotherapy, and antiangiogenesis in the context of a multimodal anticancer strategy. The combination of the folate antimetabolite pemetrexed, SU5416, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor of VEGFR2, and irradiation was investigated in human endothelial cells and tumor cell lines.
Primary isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMEC), and human glioblastoma (U87) and prostate cancer cells (PC3) were exposed to pemetrexed (2 h) alone and in combination with SU5416 (2 h). When combined with irradiation up to 8 Gy, fixed concentrations of pemetrexed (1.06 muM) and SU5416 (1.0 muM) were used. Proliferation and clonogenic assays were conducted with endothelial and tumor cells. The migration/invasion ability of endothelial cells and the ability to produce tubular structures were tested in Matrigel and tube formation assays. Apoptosis was measured by sub-G1 DNA and caspase-3 flow cytometry. To investigate underlying cell signaling, immunocytochemistry was used to detect Akt survival signaling involvement.
Triple combination using only a low-toxicity drug exposure of pemetrexed and SU5416 results in greater response than each treatment alone or than each combination of two modalities in all tested endothelial and tumor cell models. Triple combination substantially inhibits proliferation, migration/invasion, tube formation, and clonogenic survival. Triple combination also induced the highest rate of apoptosis in HDMEC and HUVEC as indicated by sub-1 G1 and caspase-3 assessment. Interestingly, triple combination therapy also reduces proliferation and clonogenic survival significantly in U87 and PC3 tumor cell lines. SU5416 potently inhibited Akt phosphorylation which could be induced by radiation and radiochemotherapy in human endothelial cells.
Our findings demonstrate the high antiendothelial/antitumoral efficacy of the concurrent administration of irradiation, chemotherapy, and angiogenesis inhibition in vitro. A potential explanation for the favorable combination would be that VEGF signaling inhibition downregulates Akt survival signaling upon activation by radiation and/or chemotherapy. The data also suggest that endothelial cell apoptosis may have an important role in the benefits of the presented therapy.
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ABSTRACT: A de novo VEGFR2-inhibited compound SKLB1002 which is independently developed in our laboratory has been described for antiangiogenesis and displays a potent antitumor activity in vivo and in vitro. In the present investigation, we aim to prove that combination therapy of SKLB1002 with hyperthermia plays a synergy as an antitumor agent in solid tumor. In this study, we analyzed their synergetic inhibitory action on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), murine mammary cancer 4T1, murine colon carcinoma CT26 in vitro. Multiply-table tournament was performed to detect cell proliferation in vitro. 4T1 implantation and CT26 implantation in BALB/c mice were used to examine the activity of combination therapy of SKLB1002 with hyperthermia in vivo. Vascular density was determined by CD31 immunohistochemistry. TUNEL was used to measure apoptosis in tumor tissue. Metastasis assay was investigated via measurement of pulmonary metastasis nodules under the microscope. Potential toxicity of combination therapy was observed by histologic analysis of main organs stained with H&E. In vitro, the combination therapy significantly inhibited cell proliferation of HUVEC, 4T1 and CT26. In vivo, 4T1 and CT26 model experiments showed that combination therapy remarkably inhibited tumor growth and prolonged life span. When compared with controls, combination therapy reached 61 % inhibition index of tumor growth against CT26 and 51 % against 4T1. Moreover, it reduced angiogenesis and increased tumor apoptosis and necrosis. It was further found that combination therapy could efficiently prevent tumor from metastasizing to lung. Importantly, it had no toxicity to main organs including heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney. Combination treatment has been proved to be a novel and strong strategy in clinical antitumor therapy. Our findings suggest that the combination therapy of SKLB1002 with hyperthermia has a synergistic antiangiogenesis, anticancer and promotion of apoptosis efficacy compared with controls. These findings could pave a new way in clinical tumor therapy.Clinical and Experimental Medicine 12/2012; · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors mediate a systemic antitumor activity via antiangiogenesis and seem to enhance the response of primary tumors to radiation. Radiosensitizing effects of COX-2 inhibition have not been reported for bone metastases. Therefore, the aim of this study was the investigation of the radiosensitizing effects of the selective COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib in secondary bone tumors of a non-small cell lung carcinoma in vivo. Human A549 lung carcinomas were implanted into a cranial window preparation in male SCID mice (n = 24). Animals were treated with either celecoxib or radiation (7 Gy single photon dose) alone or a combination of celecoxib and radiation, respectively. Untreated animals served as controls. The impact of radiation and COX-2 inhibition on angiogenesis, microcirculation, and tumor growth was analyzed over 28 days by means of intravital microscopy and histological methods. Monotherapies with radiation as well as celecoxib had significant antitumor effects compared to untreated controls. Both therapies reduced tumor growth and vascularization to a similar extent. The simultaneous administration of celecoxib and radiation further enhanced the antitumor and antiangiogenic effects of single-beam radiation. With the combined treatment approach, tumor vascularization and tumor size were decreased by 57% and 51%, respectively, as compared to monotherapy with radiation. The combined application of radiation therapy and COX-2 inhibition showed synergistic effects concerning the inhibition of tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis. Therefore, the combination of radiation with COX-2 inhibitor therapy represents a promising approach to improve the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy of bone metastases.Strahlentherapie und Onkologie 01/2011; 187(1):45-51. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Based on their different mechanisms of action, non-overlapping side effects and radiosensitising potential, combining the antimetabolites pemetrexed (multitargeted antifolate, MTA) and gemcitabine (2',2'-difluorodeoxycytidine, dFdC) with irradiation (RT) seems promising. This in vitro study, for the first time, presents the triple combination of MTA, dFdC and irradiation using various treatment schedules. The cytotoxicity, radiosensitising potential and cell cycle effect of MTA were investigated in A549 (NSCLC) and CAL-27 (SCCHN) cells. Using simultaneous or sequential exposure schedules, the cytotoxicity and radiosensitising effect of 24 h MTA combined with 1 h or 24 h dFdC were analysed. Including a time interval between MTA exposure and irradiation seemed favourable to MTA immediately preceding or following radiotherapy. MTA induced a significant S phase accumulation that persisted for more than 8 h after drug removal. Among different MTA/dFdC combinations tested, the highest synergistic interaction was produced by 24 h MTA followed by 1 h dFdC. Combined with irradiation, this schedule showed a clear radiosensitising effect. Results from our in vitro model suggest that the sequence 24 h MTA --> 1 h dFdC --> RT is the most rational design and would, after confirmation in an in vivo setting, possibly provide the greatest benefit in the clinic.BMC Cancer 01/2010; 10:441. · 3.33 Impact Factor