Mutations of the POMT1 gene found in patients with Walker-Warburg syndrome lead to a defect of protein O-mannosylation
ABSTRACT Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by congenital muscular dystrophy, brain malformation, and structural eye abnormalities. WWS is due to defects in protein O-mannosyltransferase 1 (POMT1), which catalyzes the transfer of mannose to protein to form O-mannosyl glycans. POMT1 has been shown to require co-expression of another homologue, POMT2, to have activity. In the present study, mutations in POMT1 genes observed in patients with WWS were duplicated by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant genes were co-expressed with POMT2 in Sf9 cells and assayed for protein O-mannosyltransferase activity. Expression of all mutant proteins was confirmed by Western blot, but the recombinant proteins did not show any protein O-mannosyltransferase activity. The results indicate that mutations in the POMT1 gene result in a defect of protein O-mannosylation in WWS patients. This may cause failure of binding between alpha-dystroglycan and laminin or other molecules in the extracellular matrix and interrupt normal muscular function and migration of neurons in developing brain.
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ABSTRACT: The importance of O-glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (alpha-DG) is evident from the identification of POMT1 mutations in Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS). Approximately one-fifth of the WWS patients show mutations in POMT1, which result in complete loss of protein mannosyltransferase activity. WWS patients are characterized by congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) with severe brain and eye abnormalities. This suggests a crucial role for alpha-DG during development of these organs and tissues. Here we report new POMT1 mutations and polymorphisms in WWS patients. In addition, we report different compound heterozygous POMT1 mutations in four unrelated families that result in a less severe phenotype than WWS, characterized by CMD with calf hypertrophy, microcephaly, and mental retardation. Compared to WWS patients, these patients have milder structural brain abnormalities, and eye abnormalities were absent, except for myopia in some cases. In these patients we postulate that one or both transcripts for POMT1 confer residual protein O-mannosyltransferase activity. Our data suggest the existence of a disease spectrum of CMD including brain and eye abnormalities resulting from POMT1 mutations.Human Mutation 05/2006; 27(5):453-9. DOI:10.1002/humu.20313 · 5.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nowhere else does the cell employ posttranslational protein modifications as extensively as in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In fact, such modifications can comprise the bulk of the mass of a mature protein in some cases. The most common modification is glycosylation, with N-linked glycans being the most commonly studied and best understood. However, the covalent modification of serine and threonine side chains with mannose or O-mannosylation has been gaining interest. Part of the attention comes from the realization that O-mannosylation is a conserved process found in most eukaryotes and defects in O-mannosylation can give rise to human disease. Long known to be important structural modification of some endomembrane system proteins, recent findings reveal that it is a common modification of unfolded proteins. For irreversibly misfolded proteins, O-mannosylation can aid in their disposal through ER or lysosomal pathways. The protein O-mannosylation pathway can also play an instrumental role in monitoring the folding of newly synthesized proteins. Proteins that fail to fold efficiently are O-mannosylated to remove them from harmful futile protein folding cycles and prepare them for disposal. Thus, O-mannosylation joins N-linked glycosylation as a major mechanism involved in the folding and quality control of newly synthesized proteins in the ER. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.01.014 · 5.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Congenital muscular dystrophies have a broad spectrum of genotypes and phenotypes and there is a need for a better biochemical understanding of this group of diseases in order to aid diagnosis and treatment. Several mutations resulting in these diseases cause reduced O-mannosyl glycosylation of glycoproteins, including α-dystroglycan. The enzyme POMGnT1 (protein-O-mannose N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1; EC 2.4.1.-) catalyses the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine to O-linked mannose of α-dystroglycan. In the present paper we describe the biochemical characterization of 14 clinical mutants of the glycosyltransferase POMGnT1, which have been linked to muscle-eye-brain disease or similar conditions. Truncated mutant variants of the human enzyme (recombinant POMGnT1) were expressed in Escherichia coli and screened for catalytic activity. We find that three mutants show some activity towards mannosylated peptide substrates mimicking α-dystroglycan; the residues affected by these mutants are predicted by homology modelling to be on the periphery of the POMGnT1 surface. Only in part does the location of a previously described mutated residue on the periphery of the protein structure correlate with a less severe disease mutant.Biochemical Journal 03/2011; 436(2):447-55. DOI:10.1042/BJ20101059 · 4.78 Impact Factor