Modulation of Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles and their association with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Plasma cytokine concentrations from patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were measured to determine whether the potential modulation of host Th1 vs Th2 immune responses are associated with advanced clinical disease.
The concentrations of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 were measured in the plasma of 58 patients with histologically proven HNSCC. These data were examined with respect to the histologic size (T-stage) of the primary tumor, and presence of nodal metastasis.
The concentrations of IL-12 were greater from patients without nodal metastasis, and with T(1)/T(2)-stage tumors. IL-10 levels were greater from patients with nodal metastasis, and with T(3)/T(4)-stage tumors. The concentrations of IL-6 were greater from patients with T(3)/T(4)-stage tumors.
Using parameters of primary tumor size and presence of nodal metastasis, patients with advanced HNSCC have significantly less plasma IL-12 levels, and greater plasma IL-10 and IL-6 levels.
Patients with advanced HNSCC have a potentially diminished Th1 immune response, and a stronger potential Th2 immune response when compared to that of patients with less advanced disease. EBM rating: D-5.
Article: The tumor microenvironment contribution to development, growth, invasion and metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a complex tissue that contains tumor cells and the surrounding stroma, which is populated by different types of mesenchymal cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Collectively, they are referred to as the tumor microenvironment (TME). Recent studies have shown that TME has a more profound influence on the growth and metastasis of HNSCC than was previously appreciated. Because carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are frequently observed in the stroma of the tumor, this review focuses on the potential role of tumor-CAFs interactions in progression of HNSCC. Tumor-CAFs crosstalk enhances the production of growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inflammatory mediators, which eventually facilitates tumor growth. In fact, factors and cells that do not support tumor growth are usually down regulated or mitigated in TME. Therefore TME may determine the fate of the tumors at the site of invasion and metastasis. For tumor cells that survive at these sites, stromal activation may serve to establish a supportive tumor stroma, fostering the outgrowth of the metastatic cells. The concept of tumor-stromal interactions and microenvironmental niche has profound consequences in tumor growth and metastasis and therefore, it's understanding will open up new strategies for the diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of HNSCC.Journal of Cancer. 01/2013; 4(1):66-83.
Article: Effect of treatment on systemic cytokines in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients01/2012; 2:1-6.
Article: Immunomodulation Mechanism of Antidepressants: Interactions between Serotonin/Norepinephrine Balance and Th1/Th2 Balance.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neurotransmitters and hormones regulate major immune functions, including the selection of T helper (Th)1 or Th2 cytokine responses, related to cell-mediated and humoral immunity, respectively. A role of imbalance and dynamic switching of Th1/Th2 system has been proposed, with relative displacement of the immune reserve in relation to complex interaction between Th1/Th2 and neuro-hormonal balance fluctuations, in the pathogenesis of various chronic human diseases, probably also including psychiatric disorders. Components of the stress system such as norepinephrine (NE) and glucocorticoids appear to mediate a Th2 shift, while serotonin (5-HT) and melatonin might mediate a Th1 shift. Some antidepressants would occur affecting these systems, acting on neurotransmitter balance (especially the 5-HT/NE balance) and expression levels of receptor subtypes, which in turn affect cytokine production and relative Th1/Th2 balance. It could be therefore hypothesized that the antidepressant-related increase in NE tone enhances the Th2 response, while the decrease in NE tone or the increase in 5-HT tone enhances the Th1 response. However, the neurotransmitter and Th1/Th2 balance modulation could be relative, aiming to restore physiological levels a previous imbalance in receptor sensitivity and cytokine production. The considerations on neuro-immunomodulation could represent an additional aid in the study of pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and in the choice of specific antidepressants in specific clusters of symptoms, especially in comorbidity with internal pathologies. Furthermore limited data, reviewed here, have shown the effectiveness of some antidepressants as pure immunomodulators. However, these considerations are tentative and require experimental confirmation or refutation by future studies.DNA research: an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 06/2012; 10(2):97-123. · 1.73 Impact Factor