Studies have demonstrated frequent contamination of stethoscope and usefulness of different disinfectants. Albeit, studies on the precise mode of cleaning and frequency of cleaning are lacking. This study was carried out to determine efficacy of 66% ethyl alcohol as disinfectant, rate of recontamination without cleaning and benefits of daily versus immediate cleaning.
Prospective, randomised, double blind study of 100 stethoscopes. Four cultures were obtained: before cleaning (Group A), immediately after cleaning with 66% ethyl alcohol (Group B), at the end of 4 days without cleaning (Group C) and at the end of 4 days after cleaning once a day (Group D). Samples were analysed using standard microbiological methods and Colony-forming unit (CFU) count and residual microorganism was computed for all the positive cultures. Medical staff was asked about the cleaning practices. Statistical analysis was carried out using 95% confidence interval and Chi-square test.
90% of the stethoscopes were contaminated with one or more microorganisms. Immediate cleaning and daily cleaning were associated with a significant reduction in the rate of contamination to 28% and 25% respectively. CFU count in groups B and D dropped to less than 10 in 75% and 84.7%, while the mean residual rates were 5.2% and 3.65% respectively. Groups B and D showed no statistically significant difference in terms of efficacy of disinfection.
66% ethyl alcohol is an effective disinfectant. The effects of immediate cleaning and cleaning once a day on residual flora on the diaphragm of stethoscope is comparable.
"Although, S. aureus is a common flora of human skin; it is also well documented fact that S. aureus is a primary causative agent of HAI [24-27]. In addition, it was the most common pathogenic organism isolated from stethoscopes, with a prevalence of 4.2-54% regardless of the difference in setup and sample size in several studies [2,8,14-16,28]. The prevalence of methicillin resistance among the isolates was higher (MRSA 26.6% and MSSA 30.1%). Staphylococci isolates showed high resistance to commonly used β-lactam antibiotics (Penicillins 75%). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hospital acquired infections are recognized as critical public health problems. Infections are frequently caused by organisms residing in healthcare environment, including contaminated medical equipment like Stethoscopes.
To determine bacterial contamination, bacterial profile and anti-microbial susceptibility pattern of the isolates from stethoscopes at Jimma University Specialized Hospital.Methodology: Cross-sectional study conducted from May to September 2011 at Jimma University Specialized Hospital. One hundred seventy-six stethoscopes owned by Health Care Workers (HCWs) and Medical students were randomly selected and studied. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data. Specimen was collected using moisten sterile cotton swab and 1 ml normal saline was used to transport the specimen, all laboratory investigations were done following standard microbiological techniques, at Microbiology Laboratory, Jimma University. SPSS windows version 16 used for data analysis and P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: A total, of 151 (85.8%) stethoscopes were contaminated. A total of 256 bacterial strains and a mean of 1.44x104 CFUs/diaphragm of stethoscopes was isolated. Of the 256 isolates, 133 (52%) were potential pathogens like S. aureus, Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Proteus spp., Enterobacter spp., P. aeruginosa and E. coli. All strains were resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics (two to eight classes of antibiotics). Disinfection practice was poor. Disinfection practice was found to be associated with bacterial contamination of stethoscopes (P < 0.05). High contamination rate 100 (90.9%) was observed among stethoscopes that had never been disinfected; while the least contamination 29 (72.2%) was found on those disinfected a week or less before the survey.
Bacterial contamination of the stethoscope was significant. The isolates were potential pathogens and resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics. Stethoscope is potential vehicle in the transmission of infections between patients and Healthcare Workers. Stethoscope diaphragm should be disinfected before and after each patient contact.
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 12/2013; 12(1):39. DOI:10.1186/1476-0711-12-39 · 2.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stethoscopes are one of the most commonly used medical devices and have been reported to be potential sources of hospital acquired infections. In this study, we aimed to find out the bacterial contamination of stethoscopes used by health-care staff. Swab samples were taken from the surface of the diaphragm of the stethoscopes used by health personnel in four hospitals including three second-line and one third-line health care institution in Turkey. The samples were inoculated onto bacteriological and mycological media. For identification of the microorganisms, conventional methods and Vitek2 (Biomérieux) were performed. Swab samples were taken from 121 stethoscopes. We found bacterial and fungal contamination on 92 (76%) of the stethoscopes. 15 out 90 (16.3%) had potential pathogens including methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (5), methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (4), Escherichia coli (3), Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter haemolyticus and Enterococcus spp. Of the 121 health-care persons, only 61 regularly cleaned their stethoscopes by various disinfectants. The statistical difference between the two groups in terms of pathogen and microorganism isolation was not determined (p>0.05). Although stethoscopes are uncritical medical devices, they could contain pathogen microorganisms and they might be a potential source of hospital acquired infections.
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