A prospective, randomised, double-blind study of comparative efficacy of immediate versus daily cleaning of stethoscope using 66% ethyl alcohol.
ABSTRACT Studies have demonstrated frequent contamination of stethoscope and usefulness of different disinfectants. Albeit, studies on the precise mode of cleaning and frequency of cleaning are lacking. This study was carried out to determine efficacy of 66% ethyl alcohol as disinfectant, rate of recontamination without cleaning and benefits of daily versus immediate cleaning.
Prospective, randomised, double blind study of 100 stethoscopes. Four cultures were obtained: before cleaning (Group A), immediately after cleaning with 66% ethyl alcohol (Group B), at the end of 4 days without cleaning (Group C) and at the end of 4 days after cleaning once a day (Group D). Samples were analysed using standard microbiological methods and Colony-forming unit (CFU) count and residual microorganism was computed for all the positive cultures. Medical staff was asked about the cleaning practices. Statistical analysis was carried out using 95% confidence interval and Chi-square test.
90% of the stethoscopes were contaminated with one or more microorganisms. Immediate cleaning and daily cleaning were associated with a significant reduction in the rate of contamination to 28% and 25% respectively. CFU count in groups B and D dropped to less than 10 in 75% and 84.7%, while the mean residual rates were 5.2% and 3.65% respectively. Groups B and D showed no statistically significant difference in terms of efficacy of disinfection.
66% ethyl alcohol is an effective disinfectant. The effects of immediate cleaning and cleaning once a day on residual flora on the diaphragm of stethoscope is comparable.
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ABSTRACT: La formación académica de estudiantes de medicina implica interacción con pacientes y superficies del entorno hospitalario, los microorganismos presentes allí pueden ser adquiridos y transmitidos con los riesgos consecuentes para la comunidad hospitalaria. El presente es un estudio descriptivo cuantitativo donde se analizan muestras provenientes de estudiantes de medicina (n= 155) en rotaciones de 3 semanas, tomando hisopados de nariz, boca, manos y fonendoscopio, gram y cultivo en agar sangre, incubación 24 horas a 37°C y 5% de CO2. Se hizo la identificación mediante gram y pruebas de biotipificación convencionales y susceptibilidad antibiótica según técnica de kirbybauer. Los hallazgos aquí presentados evidencian alta frecuencia de bacterias patógenas en las fuentes de aislamiento, siendo relevante la presencia del Staphylococcus aureus en un 41,7% y la resistencia a antibióticos tanto por gram positivos como por gram negativos; por tanto, es de considerar la implementación de estrategias que minimicen la circulación de estos microorganismos en el ambiente hospitalario. El objetivo de este estudio es establecer la frecuencia de los microorganismos aislados en estudiantes de una Facultad de Medicina.06/2012; 20(1):90-100.
Mayo Clinic Proceedings 03/2014; 89(3):277-80. DOI:10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.01.014 · 5.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stethoscopes are one of the most commonly used medical devices and have been reported to be potential sources of hospital acquired infections. In this study, we aimed to find out the bacterial contamination of stethoscopes used by health-care staff. Swab samples were taken from the surface of the diaphragm of the stethoscopes used by health personnel in four hospitals including three second-line and one third-line health care institution in Turkey. The samples were inoculated onto bacteriological and mycological media. For identification of the microorganisms, conventional methods and Vitek2 (Biomérieux) were performed. Swab samples were taken from 121 stethoscopes. We found bacterial and fungal contamination on 92 (76%) of the stethoscopes. 15 out 90 (16.3%) had potential pathogens including methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (5), methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (4), Escherichia coli (3), Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter haemolyticus and Enterococcus spp. Of the 121 health-care persons, only 61 regularly cleaned their stethoscopes by various disinfectants. The statistical difference between the two groups in terms of pathogen and microorganism isolation was not determined (p>0.05). Although stethoscopes are uncritical medical devices, they could contain pathogen microorganisms and they might be a potential source of hospital acquired infections.