Phylogeny and biogeography of the Malagasy and Australasian rainbowfishes (Teleostei: Melanotaenioidei): Gondwanan vicariance and evolution in freshwater. Mol Phylogen Evol

Division of Vertebrate Zoology, Department of Ichthyology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024, USA.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (Impact Factor: 3.92). 01/2005; 33(3):719-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2004.07.002
Source: PubMed


Phylogenetic relationships of the Malagasy and Australasian rainbowfishes are investigated using 4394 characters derived from five mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, tRNA-Valine, ND5, and COI), three nuclear genes (28S, histone H3, and TMO-4c4), and 102 morphological transformations. This study represents the first phylogenetic analysis of the endemic Malagasy family Bedotiidae and includes a nearly complete taxonomic review of all nominal species, as well as numerous undescribed species. Simultaneous analysis of the molecular and morphological datasets results in two equally most parsimonious trees. Results indicate that Bedotiidae (Bedotia+Rheocles) and Bedotia are monophyletic, whereas Rheocles is paraphyletic with the inclusion of two recently described species from northeastern Madagascar, R. vatosoa, and R. derhami. Rheocles vatosoa and R. derhami are sister taxa, and this clade is recovered as the sister group to Bedotia. The remaining species of Rheocles are not sexually dimorphic and comprise a clade that is recovered as the sister group to Bedotia+(R. derhami+R. vatosoa), all of which are sexually dichromatic, and sexually dimorphic for pigmentation and fin development. Three geographically distinct clades are recovered within Bedotia, one comprising species with distributions ranging from mid- to southeastern Madagascar, another including species restricted to eastern drainages north of the Masoala Peninsula, and a third comprising taxa with distributions extending from the Masoala Peninsula south to the Ivoloina River. The Australian/New Guinean melanotaeniids are monophyletic and are recovered as the sister group to Bedotiidae. The Australasian Telmatherinidae and Pseudomugilidae comprise a clade that is recovered as the sister group to the Melanotaeniidae-Bedotiidae clade. This sister-group relationship between Malagasy bedotiids and a clade restricted to Australia-New Guinea, and the absence of a close relationship between bedotiids and African or Mascarene atheriniforms, is congruent with the break-up of Gondwana, not a scenario reliant on Cenozoic trans-oceanic dispersal. Finally, results of the phylogenetic analysis indicate that Atheriniformes is polyphyletic and further corroborate recent morphological hypotheses, which have recovered Bedotiidae in a derived position within Atherinoidei.

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    • "from the orders Beloniformes, Cyprinodontiformes, and Mugiliformes, challenging the monophyly of Atheriniformes. Extensive disagreement exists among previous hypotheses, for example in relation to the position of the morphologically peculiar Phallostethidae, the monophyly of Melanotaeniidae, and relationships among Indo-West Pacific families Melanotaeniidae, Pseudomugilidae, Bedotiidae, and Telmatherinidae (Aarn and Ivantsoff, 1997; Aarn et al., 1998; Dyer and Chernoff, 1996; Ivantsoff et al., 1997; Saeed et al., 1994; Sparks and Smith, 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Phylogenetic relationships among families within the order Atheriniformes have been difficult to resolve on the basis of morphological evidence. Molecular studies so far have been fragmentary and based on a small number taxa and loci. In this study, we provide a new phylogenetic hypothesis based on sequence data collected for eight molecular markers for a representative sample of 103 atheriniform species, covering 2/3 of the genera in this order. The phylogeny is calibrated with six carefully chosen fossil taxa to provide an explicit timeframe for the diversification of this group. Our results support the subdivision of Atheriniformes into two suborders (Atherinopsoidei and Atherinoidei), the nesting of Notocheirinae within Atherinopsidae, and the monophyly of tribe Menidiini, among others. We propose taxonomic changes for Atherinopsoidei, but a few weakly supported nodes in our phylogeny suggests that further study is necessary to support a revised taxonomy of Atherinoidei. The time-calibrated phylogeny was used to infer ancestral habitat reconstructions to explain the current distribution of marine and freshwater taxa. Based on these results, the current distribution of Atheriniformes is likely due to widespread marine dispersal along the margins of continents, infrequent trans-oceanic dispersal, and repeated invasion of freshwater habitats. This conclusion is supported by post-Gondwanan divergence times among families within the order, and a high probability of a marine ancestral habitat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 03/2015; 86. DOI:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.03.001 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    • "The recent dating of the colonization of Sulawesi in 20 non-marine animal groups by a molecular clock approach has shown that Miocene to Pleistocene dispersal to the island from Asia (Sundaland, Philippines) is the most likely mechanism for the origin of the vast majority of Sulawesi taxa [16]. However, an origin of Sulawesi taxa from both Asia and Australia (including New Guinea) through vicariant processes could not be ruled out in some instances, e.g., from Asia for mite harvestmen [21] or from Australia for pachychilid freshwater snails [22], atherinimorph fishes [23], and phalangerids [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The complex geological history of the Indonesian island Sulawesi has shaped the origin and subsequent diversification of its taxa. For the endemic freshwater snail Tylomelania a vicariant origin from the Australian margin has been hypothesized. Divergence time estimates from a mtDNA phylogeny based on a comprehensive island-wide sampling of Tylomelania fit regional tectonic constraints and support the 'out-of-Australia' vicariance hypothesis. The Banggai-Sula region of the Sula Spur, the Australian promontory colliding with West Sulawesi during the Miocene, is identified as a possible source area for the colonization of Sulawesi by the ancestor of Tylomelania. The molecular phylogeny also shows a rapid diversification of Tylomelania into eight major lineages with very little overlap in their distribution on the island. Haplotype networks provide further evidence for a strong spatial structure of genetic diversity in Tylomelania. Distribution boundaries of the major lineages do at best partially coincide with previously identified contact zones for other endemic species groups on Sulawesi. This pattern has likely been influenced by the poor dispersal capabilities and altitudinal distribution limits of this strict freshwater inhabitant. We suggest that late Miocene and Pliocene orogeny in large parts of Sulawesi has been the vicariant event driving primary diversification in Tylomelania.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e98917. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0098917 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "However, the Pseudomugilidae are also clearly paraphyletic, with P. signifer being basal to all remaining Pseudomugilidae and Telmatherinidae (Figure  1). This finding is consistent with the results of [22] (see also Figure  2), and highlights the need for a detailed study addressing the systematic position of several Pseudomugil species, especially that of P. signifer. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The Malili Lakes system in central Sulawesi (Indonesia) is a hotspot of freshwater biodiversity in the Wallacea, characterized by endemic species flocks like the sailfin silversides (Teleostei: Atherinomorpha: Telmatherinidae) radiation. Phylogenetic reconstructions of these freshwater fishes have previously revealed two Lake Matano Telmatherina lineages (sharpfins and roundfins) forming an ancient monophyletic group, which is however masked by introgressive hybridization of sharpfins with riverine populations. The present study uses mitochondrial data, newly included taxa, and different external calibration points, to estimate the age of speciation and hybridization processes, and to test for phylogeographic relationships between Kalyptatherina from ancient islands off New Guinea, Marosatherina from SW Sulawesi, and the Malili Lakes flock. Results Contrary to previous expectations, Kalyptatherina is the closest relative to the Malili Lakes Telmatherinidae, and Marosatherina is the sister to this clade. Palaeogeographic reconstructions of Sulawesi suggest that the closer relationship of the Malili Lakes radiation to Kalyptatherina might be explained by a 'terrane-rafting’ scenario, while proto-Marosatherina might have colonized Sulawesi by marine dispersal. The most plausible analysis conducted here implies an age of c. 1.9 My for the onset of divergence between the two major clades endemic to Lake Matano. Diversification within both lineages is apparently considerably more recent (c. 1.0 My); stream haplotypes present in the sharpfins are of even more recent origin (c. 0.4 My). Conclusions Sulawesi’s Telmatherinidae have most likely originated in the Sahul Shelf area, have possibly reached the island by both, marine dispersal and island/terrane-rafting, and have colonized the Malili Lakes system from rivers. Estimates for the split between the epibenthic sharpfins and the predominantly pelagic to benthopelagic roundfins in Lake Matano widely coincide with geological age estimates of this rift lake. Diversification within both clades clearly predates hybridization events with stream populations. For Lake Matano, these results support a scenario of initial benthic-pelagic divergence after colonization of the lake by riverine populations, followed by rapid radiation within both clades within the last 1 My. Secondary hybridization of stream populations with the sharpfins occurred more recently, and has thus most likely not contributed to the initial divergence of this benthic species flock.
    BMC Evolutionary Biology 05/2014; 14:94. DOI:10.1186/1471-2148-14-94 · 3.37 Impact Factor
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