Non-recurrent 17p11.2 deletions are generated by homologous and non-homologous mechanisms
ABSTRACT Several recurrent common chromosomal deletion and duplication breakpoints have been localized to large, highly homologous, low-copy repeats (LCRs). The mechanism responsible for these rearrangements, viz., non-allelic homologous recombination between LCR copies, has been well established. However, fewer studies have examined the mechanisms responsible for non-recurrent rearrangements with non-homologous breakpoint regions. Here, we have analyzed four uncommon deletions of 17p11.2, involving the Smith-Magenis syndrome region. Using somatic cell hybrid lines created from patient lymphoblasts, we have utilized a strategy based on the polymerase chain reaction to refine the deletion breakpoints and to obtain sequence data at the deletion junction. Our analyses have revealed that two of the four deletions are a product of Alu/Alu recombination, whereas the remaining two deletions result from a non-homologous end-joining mechanism. Of the breakpoints studied, three of eight are located in LCRs, and five of eight are within repetitive elements, including Alu and MER5B sequences. These findings suggest that higher-order genomic architecture, such as LCRs, and smaller repetitive sequences, such as Alu elements, can mediate chromosomal deletions via homologous and non-homologous mechanisms. These data further implicate homologous recombination as the predominant mechanism of deletion formation in this genomic interval.
- SourceAvailable from: Louise Kristine Enggaard Hoeffding[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Genome instability plays fundamental roles in human evolution and phenotypic variation within our population. This instability leads to genomic rearrangements that are involved in a wide variety of human disorders, including congenital and neurodevelopmental disorders, and cancers. Insight into the molecular mechanisms governing such genomic rearrangements may increase our understanding of disease pathology and evolutionary processes. Here we analyse 17 carriers of non-recurrent deletions in the NRXN1 gene, which have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, e.g. schizophrenia, autism and epilepsies. 17 non-recurrent NRXN1 deletions identified by GWA were sequenced to map the breakpoints of each. Meme … etc. was used to identify shared patterns between the deletions and compare these were previously studies on non-recurrent deletions. We discovered two novel sequence motifs shared between all 17 NRXN1 deletions and a significantly higher AT nucleotide content at the breakpoints, compared to the overall nucleotide content on chromosome 2. We found different alteration of sequence at the breakpoint; small insertions and duplications giving rise to short microhomology sequences. No single mechanism seems to be implicated in the deletion events, but the results suggest that NHEJ, FoSTeS or MMBIR is implicated. The two novel sequence motifs together with a high AT content in all in NRXN1 deletions may lead to increased instability leading to a increase susceptibility to a single stranded structures. This favours potentially repaired by NHEJ mechanism of double strand breaks or may leading to replication errors. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 04/2014; 165(1):52-61. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.32204 · 3.27 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent studies in humans and other model organisms have demonstrated that structural variants (SVs) comprise a substantial proportion of variation among individuals of each species. Many of these variants have been linked to debilitating diseases in humans, thereby cementing the importance of refining methods for their detection. Despite progress in the field, reliable detection of SVs still remains a problem even for human subjects. Many of the underlying problems that make SVs difficult to detect in humans are amplified in livestock species, whose lower quality genome assemblies and incomplete gene annotation can often give rise to false positive SV discoveries. Regardless of the challenges, SV detection is just as important for livestock researchers as it is for human researchers, given that several productive traits and diseases have been linked to copy number variations (CNVs) in cattle, sheep, and pig. Already, there is evidence that many beneficial SVs have been artificially selected in livestock such as a duplication of the agouti signaling protein gene that causes white coat color in sheep. In this review, we will list current SV and CNV discoveries in livestock and discuss the problems that hinder routine discovery and tracking of these polymorphisms. We will also discuss the impacts of selective breeding on CNV and SV frequencies and mention how SV genotyping could be used in the future to improve genetic selection.Frontiers in Genetics 02/2014; 5:37. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2014.00037
- Meiosis - Molecular Mechanisms and Cytogenetic Diversity, 02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0118-5