Staphylococcus aureus and wounds: A review of tea tree oil as a promising antimicrobial

School of Nursing, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455, USA.
American Journal of Infection Control (Impact Factor: 2.21). 12/2004; 32(7):402-8. DOI: 10.1016/S0196655304003657
Source: PubMed


Antibiotic-resistant bacteria continue to be a major health concern worldwide. In particular, Staphylococcus aureus, both methicillin-resistant and -sensitive, are of concern in their ability to cause difficult skin and underlying tissue infections. Melaleuca alternifolia oil (tea tree oil), an essential oil, has demonstrated promising efficacy in treating these infections. Tea tree oil has been used for centuries as a botanical medicine, and has only in recent decades surfaced in the scientific literature as a promising adjunctive wound treatment. Tea tree oil is antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and has demonstrated ability to activate monocytes. There are few apparent side effects to using tea tree oil topically in low concentrations, with contact dermatitis being the most common. Tea tree oil has been effective as an adjunctive therapy in treating osteomyelitis and infected chronic wounds in case studies and small clinical trials. There is a need for larger clinical trials to further examine efficacy of tea tree oil as an adjunctive wound therapy, as well as improved guidelines for developing plant-based medicines.

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    • "The EOs most commonly used for their antibacterial and antifungal properties are the tea tree oil, steam distilled from the leaves, and terminal branchlets of Melaleuca alternifolia. In particular the tea tree oil has been shown to be effective in vitro on several strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wounds (even surgical wounds) and on methicillin-resistant and -sensitive bacteria (MRSA and MSSA) [33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aromatherapy is the controlled use of plant essences for therapeutic purposes. Its applications are numerous (i.e., wellbeing, labour, infections, dementia, and anxiety treatment) but often they have not been scientifically validated. The aim of the present study is to review the available literature to determine if there is evidence for effectiveness of aromatherapy in surgical patients to treat anxiety and insomnia, to control pain and nausea, and to dress wound. Efficacy studies of lavender or orange and peppermint essential oils, to treat anxiety and nausea, respectively, have shown positive results. For other aspects, such as pain control, essential oils therapy has shown uncertain results. Finally, there are encouraging data for the treatment of infections, especially for tea tree oil, although current results are still inconclusive. It should also be considered that although they are, allergic reactions and toxicity can occur after oral ingestion. Therefore, while rigorous studies are being carried out, it is important that the therapeutic use of essential oils be performed in compliance with clinical safety standards.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 02/2014; 2014(4):726341. DOI:10.1155/2014/726341 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    • "Provita Hoofsure Endurance (Provita Eurotech Ltd., Omagh, UK) is a biodegradable footbath solution containing organic acids, tea tree oil (primary antimicrobial ), and wetting agents without the negative environmental concerns of copper sulfate. The primary active antimicrobial ingredient in this product has been shown to have antimicrobial effects and antiinflammatory effects (Halcón and Milkus, 2004; Taga et al., 2012). The objective of this study was to quantify changes in digital dermatitis frequency when using Provita Hoofsure Endurance and copper sulfate in a split footbath in 3 commercial dairy herds. "
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    ABSTRACT: Copper sulfate is the industry gold standard footbath ingredient for controlling dairy cow digital dermatitis. However, when used footbath solutions are deposited on soil, high levels of copper in the soil may result, which can have toxic and negative effects on plant growth. An alternative to copper sulfate is Provita Hoofsure Endurance (Provita Eurotech Ltd., Omagh, UK), which is a biodegradable solution containing organic acids, tea tree oil, and wetting agents. The objective of this study was to quantify changes in digital dermatitis frequency when using Provita Hoofsure Endurance and copper sulfate in a split footbath in 3 commercial dairy herds. This study was conducted from January 5, 2012, to March 19, 2012, in 3 commercial Kentucky dairies with 120, 170, and 200 milking Holstein cows. None of the herds was using a footbath for digital dermatitis control before the study. Footbath solutions were delivered using a split footbath. During the study, a 3% Hoofsure Endurance solution for the left hooves and a 5% copper sulfate solution for the right hooves was used. Digital dermatitis was scored every 3 wk using the M0 to M4 system, where M0 = a claw free of signs of digital dermatitis; M1 = a lesion <2 cm that is not painful; M2 = the ulcerative stage, with lesion diameter of >2 cm, and painful to the touch; M3 = the healing stage and covered by a scab; and M4 = the chronic stage and characterized by dyskeratosis or proliferation of the surface that is generally not painful. McNemar's test statistic suggested that a statistically significant difference existed in the proportions of M1 and M2 lesions between the beginning and end of the study for both treatments. This indicates that each solution was effective in decreasing the proportion of M1 or M2 lesions from baseline to the last time point. A chi-square test calculated using PROC FREQUENCY of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) indicated that no statistically significant relationship existed between the treatments among changes in digital dermatitis frequency from the baseline to the end of the study. Performance of the 2 footbath solutions was comparable throughout the study. No significant differences were observed between the copper sulfate and Provita Hoofsure Endurance.
    Journal of Dairy Science 01/2014; 97(4). DOI:10.3168/jds.2013-6776 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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    • "Efficient and prompt treatment does not exist until now (Gillet et al., 2011). There is a need of a more convenient and less expensive treatment mainly during cutaneous infections with PVL-producing MSSA (Halcon and Milkus, 2004). The search for new substances to better treat these infections is necessary (Nathwani, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) caused by staphylococcal toxins including Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) have increased these last years. Treatment of these complicated infections is often difficult. The search for new methods and new antimicrobial substances is necessary. Natural products such as essential oils appear among the possible solutions. The objective of our work was to prove the effectiveness of treatment of these infections with essential oils in vivo on Wistar rats; we have chosen the oil of Origanum glandulosum from Algeria to perform this treatment because of its antiseptic properties. The treatment was done on infections induced in Wistar rats using PVL producing Staphylococcus aureus strain isolated from Tlemcen University Hospital. The results of our experiment have shown a significant decrease in the number of colonies collected from rats treated by the concentrations of 1 and 5% of O. glandulosum essential oil. The treatment of skin infections especially wounds caused by PVL positive S. aureus is possible with the essential oil of O. glandulosum which seems to be effective in eradicating the germ from infected wounds.
    African journal of microbiology research 05/2013; 7(20):2372-2377. DOI:10.5897/AJMR2012.2448 · 0.54 Impact Factor
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