Apolipoprotein E gene promoter −219G→T polymorphism increases LDL-cholesterol concentrations and susceptibility to oxidation in response to a diet rich in saturated fat

Lipids and Atherosclerosis Research Unit, Reina Sofía University Hospital, Córdoba, Spain.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 11/2004; 80(5):1404-9.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene promoter polymorphism (-219G-->T) has been associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction, premature coronary artery disease, and decreased plasma apolipoprotein E concentrations.
We aimed to determine in healthy subjects whether this polymorphism modifies the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation and the lipid response to the content and quality of dietary fat.
Fifty-five healthy men with the APOE3/E3 genotype (7 GG, 38 GT, and 10 TT) completed 3 dietary periods, each lasting 4 wk. The first was a saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich diet [38% fat-20% SFA and 12% monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)-and 47% carbohydrates (CHO)], which was followed by a CHO-rich diet (30% fat-<10% SFA and 12% MUFA-and 55% CHO) or a MUFA-rich diet (38% fat-<10% SFA and 22% MUFA-and 47% CHO) in a randomized crossover design. At the end of each dietary period, LDL oxidation susceptibility, lipids, and lipoproteins were measured.
Compared with carriers of the G allele, TT subjects had a significantly (P < 0.05) shorter lag time after the SFA diet. The replacement of the SFA diet by the CHO or MUFA diet induced a greater increase (P < 0.05) in lag time in the TT subjects than in the GG or GT subjects. Carriers of the T allele had higher LDL-cholesterol (P < 0.05) and apolipoprotein B (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations after the SFA diet than did GG subjects. Compared with GG subjects, carriers of the T allele had a significantly (P < 0.05) greater decrease in LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B when they changed from the SFA to the CHO diet.
The -219G-->T polymorphism may partially explain differences in individual responses to diet.

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