Risk factors for breast cancer associated with mammographic features in Singaporean chinese women.
ABSTRACT Mammographic density has been found to be a strong risk factor for breast cancer and to be associated with age, body weight, parity, and menopausal status. Most studies to date have been carried out in Western populations. The purpose of the study described here was to determine in a cross-sectional study in a Singaporean Chinese population the demographic, menstrual, reproductive, and anthropometric factors that are associated with quantitative variations in age-adjusted percentage mammographic densities and to examine the association of these factors with the dense and nondense areas of the mammogram.
We used mammograms and questionnaire data collected from subjects in the Singapore Breast Screening Project. Women ages 45 to 69 years participated and 84% of those screened were Chinese. Mammograms were digitized and percentage density was measured and analyzed in relation to the questionnaire data.
Percentage mammographic density was associated with several risk factors for breast cancer, most of them also associated, in opposite directions, with the dense and nondense components of the image. Percentage density was associated with age and weight (both negatively), height and age at first birth (both positively), and number of births and postmenopausal status (both negatively). Percentage density was weakly associated with a previous breast biopsy but was not associated with age at menarche or menopause, with use of hormones, or with a family history of breast cancer.
Percentage mammographic density in Singaporean Chinese women has similar associations with risk factors for breast cancer to those seen in Caucasians.
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ABSTRACT: There has been considerable recent interest in the genetic, biological and epidemiological basis of mammographic density (MD), and the search for causative links between MD and breast cancer (BC) risk. This report will critically review the current literature on MD and summarize the current evidence for its association with BC. Keywords 'mammographic dens*', 'dense mammary tissue' or 'percent dens*' were used to search the existing literature in English on PubMed and Medline. All reports were critically analyzed. The data were assigned to one of the following aspects of MD: general association with BC, its relationship with the breast hormonal milieu, the cellular basis of MD, the generic variations of MD, and its significance in the clinical setting. MD adjusted for age, and BMI is associated with increased risk of BC diagnosis, advanced tumour stage at diagnosis and increased risk of both local recurrence and second primary cancers. The MD measures that predict BC risk have high heritability, and to date several genetic markers associated with BC risk have been found to also be associated with these MD risk predictors. Change in MD could be a predictor of the extent of chemoprevention with tamoxifen. Although the biological and genetic pathways that determine and perhaps modulate MD remain largely unresolved, significant inroads are being made into the understanding of MD, which may lead to benefits in clinical screening, assessment and treatment strategies. This review provides a timely update on the current understanding of MD's association with BC risk.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 03/2014; 144(3). DOI:10.1007/s10549-014-2901-2 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The number of mammography examinations done in Nigerian hospitals has increased tremendously over the last three years, due to the breast cancer awareness of the general populace, recent acquisition of mammography machines and attempts at setting up national breast screening programmes. Mammography plays an extremely important role in the diagnostic assessment and screening of breast cancer. There has however been no documentation of mammographic findings in our environment to serve as guide for practitioners. An appreciation of non-pathological findings in relation to abnormal findings is needed to avoid the practice of unnecessary and sometimes aggressive procedures. This study was undertaken to analyze and document the significant mammographic findings in a new tertiary institution over the last three years. Three hundred consecutive patients sent for screening and diagnostic mammography had their mammograms reviewed. Significant findings were recorded and compared to histopathological and ultrasound findings. The various types of breast density found included fatty, dense, fibrofatty and fibroglandular breast. The pathologies found ranged from masses (cysts, fibroadenoma and cancer), dilated ducts, skin thickening or tethering, keloids, surgical clips, and calcifications to microcalcifications. This pictorial essay describes and illustrates the mammographic appearances of normal variants and various pathologies elicited in 300 consecutive patients seen in this radiology department.
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ABSTRACT: Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer and is highly variable, but, to date, few studies have examined density in Asian women, particularly those in low and middle-income Asian countries where genetic and lifestyle determinants may be significantly different. A total of 1,240 women who attended an opportunistic mammogram screening programme were eligible for analysis. Mammographic density was estimated using a fully-automated thresholding method and differences across ethnic groups were examined using linear regression in 205 randomly selected Chinese women, 138 Malay and 199 Indian women. Percent density was significantly higher in Chinese women (28.5%; 95% CI 27.0%, 30.0%) compared to Malay (24.2%; 95% CI 22.5%, 26.0%) and Indian (24.3%; 95% CI 22.8%, 25.7%) women (p<0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, menopausal status, parity and age at first full term pregnancy. Correspondingly, adjusted nondense area was significantly lower in Chinese (72.2cm2; 95% CI 67.9cm2, 76.5cm2) women compared to Malay (92.1cm2; 95% CI 86.9cm2, 97.2cm2) and Indian (97.7cm2; 95% CI 93.4cm2, 101.9cm2) women (p<0.001), but dense area did not differ across the three ethnic groups. Our study shows that higher percent density and lower nondense area reflect the higher incidence of breast cancer in Chinese compared to Malay and Indian women in Malaysia. Known lifestyle determinants of mammographic density do not fully account for the ethnic variations observed in mammographic density in this Asian cohort.PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117568. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117568 · 3.53 Impact Factor