A case-control study of maternal recreational physical activity and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

Center for Perinatal Studies 444N, Swedish Medical Center, 747 Broadway, Seattle, WA 98122, USA.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice (Impact Factor: 2.54). 11/2004; 66(2):203-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2004.03.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Despite the maternal and infant morbidity associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), few modifiable risk factors have been identified. We explored the relation between recreational physical activity performed during the year before and during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy and the risk of GDM. 155 GDM cases and 386 normotensive, non-diabetic pregnant controls provided information about the type, intensity, frequency, and duration of physical activity performed during these time periods. Women who participated in any recreational physical activity during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy, as compared with inactive women, experienced a 48% reduction in risk of GDM (odds ratio [OR] = 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33-0.80). The number of hours spent performing recreational activities and the energy expended were related to a decrease in GDM risk. No clear patterns related to distance walked and pace of walking emerged. Daily stair climbing, when compared with no stair climbing, was associated with a 49-78% reduction in GDM risk (P for trend <0.011). Recreational physical activity performed during the year before the index pregnancy was also associated with statistically significant reductions in GDM risk, but women who engaged in physical activity during both time periods experienced the greatest reduction in risk (OR = 0.40; 95% CI 0.23-0.68). These data suggest that recreational physical activity performed before and/or during pregnancy is associated with a reduced risk of GDM.

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    ABSTRACT: Background. The period surrounding pregnancy has been identified as a risk period for overweight/obesity in both mother and child because of excessive gestational weight gain (GWG). The promotion of a healthy GWG is therefore of paramount importance in the context of the prevention of obesity in the current and next generations. Objective. To provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of prenatal physical activity interventions, alone or in combination with nutritional counselling, on GWG and to address whether preventing excessive GWG decreases the incidence of infant high birth weight and/or postpartum weight retention. Method. A search of the PubMed database was conducted to identify all relevant studies. Nineteen studies were included in this review: 13 interventions combining physical activity, nutrition, and GWG counselling and 6 interventions including physical activity alone. Results. Prenatal lifestyle interventions promoting healthy eating and physical activity habits appear to be the most effective approach to prevent excessive GWG. Achievement of appropriate GWG may also decrease the incidence of high infant birth weight and postpartum weight retention. Conclusion. Healthy eating habits during pregnancy, combined with an active lifestyle, may be important elements in the prevention of long-term risk of obesity for two generations.
    Journal of pregnancy 01/2012; 2012:470247. DOI:10.1155/2012/470247
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    Gestational Diabetes, 11/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-581-5
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to translate the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) into Vietnamese, and test its reliability and validity among Vietnamese pregnant women. Intraclass correlation (ICC) and the Bland and Altman method were used to assess the test-retest reliability of the PPAQ. The Pearson correlations coefficient between the PPAQ measurements and those obtained from a pedometer that measured step counts (10-day averages) were used to determine the validity of the questionnaire. The PPAQ was successfully translated from English into Vietnamese with face validity through a rigorous process of the cross-cultural validation. For the analysis of reliability, the ICC value was 0.88 (95% CI 0.83-0.94) for total activity, 0.94 for sedentary, 0.88 for light, 0.90 for moderate, and 0.87 for vigorous activities. The Bland and Altman analysis showed that the first and second PPAQ total scores did not significantly differ from zero, and mostly fell within the range of 0 +/- 1.96 SD. The analysis of validity showed that there were moderate correlations with statistically significance (p = 0.02) between the step counts and PPAQ total. Our study indicates that the Vietnamese PPAQ is within acceptable reliability and validity.
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