Smoking cessation intervention in a large randomised population-based study. The Inter99 study.
ABSTRACT Several large and well-conducted community interventions have failed to detect an effect on prevalence of smoking.
Two thousand four hundred eight daily smokers in all motivational stages were actively recruited and included in a randomised population-based intervention study in Copenhagen, Denmark. All smokers completed a questionnaire and underwent a health examination and a lifestyle consultation. Daily smokers in the high intensity intervention group were offered assistance to quit in smoking cessation groups.
The validated abstinence rate at 1-year follow-up was 16.3% in the high intensity group and 12.7% in the low intensity group compared with a self-reported abstinence rate of 7.3% in the background population. The adjusted odds ratio of abstinence in the high intervention group was significantly higher, OR = 2.2 (1.6-3.0) than in the background population, also in the 'intention-to-treat' analyses, OR = 1.5 (1.1-2.0). Higher socioeconomic status, higher age at onset of daily smoking, and a higher wish to quit were predictors of success.
In a population-based setting, using active recruitment and offering assistance to quit, it was possible to include many smokers and to achieve a significantly higher validated abstinence in the high intensity intervention than in the background population, even when using 'intention-to-treat' analyses.
- SourceAvailable from: Tracy J Costello[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: African Americans suffer disproportionately from the adverse health consequences of smoking, and also report substantially lower socioeconomic status than Whites and other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Although socioeconomic disadvantage is known to have a negative influence on smoking cessation rates and overall health, little is known about the influence of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation specifically among African Americans. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to characterize the impact of several individual- and area-level indicators of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation among African Americans. Data were collected as part of a smoking cessation intervention study for African American smokers (N = 379) recruited from the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, who participated in the study between 2005 and 2007. The separate and combined influences of individual-level (insurance status, unemployment, education, and income) and area-level (neighborhood unemployment, education, income, and poverty) indicators of socioeconomic status on continuous smoking abstinence were examined across time intervals using continuation ratio logit modeling. Individual-level analyses indicated that unemployment was significantly associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while higher income was associated with greater odds of abstinence. However, only unemployment remained a significant predictor of abstinence when unemployment and income were included in the model together. Area-level analyses indicated that greater neighborhood unemployment and poverty were associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while greater neighborhood education was associated with higher odds of abstinence. However, only neighborhood unemployment remained significantly associated with abstinence status when individual-level income and unemployment were included in the model. Overall, findings suggest that individual- and area-level unemployment have a negative impact on smoking cessation among African Americans. Addressing unemployment through public policy and within smoking cessation interventions, and providing smoking cessation treatment for the unemployed may have a beneficial impact on tobacco-related health disparities.Social Science [?] Medicine 02/2012; 74(9):1394-401. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.01.013
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To investigate whether the effect of an individualised multi-factorial lifestyle intervention on dietary habits differs across socioeconomic groups. The study was an individualised multi-factorial lifestyle intervention study with a control group, Inter99 (1999-2006), Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants in the intervention group (n=6 091) received lifestyle intervention during a five-year period. The control group (n=3 324) was followed by questionnaires. Multilevel regression analyses were used, including interaction term between intervention effect and socioeconomic position (SEP) and analysed separately for men and women. SEP was measured as length of education and employment status and dietary habits were measured by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Men with a short education improved their dietary habits more (net-change [95% confidence interval]) (0.25 points [-0.01;0.52]) than men with longer education (0.02 points [-0.09;0.14]), (interaction: p=0.02). Furthermore, unemployed women improved their dietary intake more (0.33 points [0.05;0.61]) than employed women (0.01 points [-0.10;0.11]), (interaction: p=0.03). Similar results were found for fruit intake, whereas no significant interactions were found for fish, fat and vegetable intake. Individualised dietary interventions do not increase and may even decrease or hinder further widening of the social inequalities in health due to unhealthy dietary habits among socially disadvantaged individuals.Preventive Medicine 01/2012; 54(1):88-93. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.10.005
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions at a national level. A systematic follow-up was made of 3628 adults who participated in smoking cessation groups or in individual interventions in different settings in Denmark from January 2001 to March 2002. The rates of continued abstinence from smoking were estimated as 18% and 16% after 6 and 12 months, respectively, for the 3628 participants from 101 smoking cessation units. Among participants, who accomplished at least 75% of the intervention, the rates of non-smokers after six and twelve months were 23% and 19%, respectively. Five of the investigated factors influenced continued abstinence after 12 months: gender, age, degree of nicotine dependence, the format and the setting of the cessation service. The study shows that it is possible to implement uniform smoking cessation interventions at a national level keeping the same abstinence rates as previously achieved in randomized clinical trials. The successful cessation interventions were run by nurses and equivalent staff that had received only 3 days of training and had no other particular therapeutic skills.Preventive Medicine 08/2007; 45(1):12-4. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.04.001