Selenoproteins, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and the consequences: revisiting of the mevalonate pathway.

Department of Pathobiochemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University, Medical School, Duesbergweg 6, 55099 Mainz, Germany.
Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.07). 11/2004; 14(7):273-81. DOI: 10.1016/j.tcm.2004.08.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activators (fibrates) are the backbone of pharmacologic hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia treatment. Many of their clinical effects, however, are still enigmatic. This article describes how a side road of the mevalonate pathway, characterized in recent years, can rationalize a major fraction of these unexplained observations. This side road is the enzymatic isopentenylation of selenocysteine-tRNA([Ser]Sec) (Sec-tRNA), the singular tRNA to decode the unusual amino acid selenocysteine. The functionally indispensable isopentenylation of Sec-tRNA requires a unique intermediate from the mevalonate pathway, isopentenyl pyrophosphate, which concomitantly constitutes the central building block for cholesterol biosynthesis, and whose formation is suppressed by statins and fibrates. The resultant inhibition of Sec-tRNA isopentenylation profoundly decreases selenoprotein expression. This effect might seamlessly explain the immunosuppressive, redox, endothelial, sympatholytic, and thyroidal effects of statins and fibrates as well as their common side effects and drug interactions.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A short review is given of the potential role of selenium deficiency and selenium intervention trials in atherosclerotic heart disease. Selenium is an essential constituent of several proteins, including the glutathione peroxidases and selenoprotein P. The selenium intake in Europe is generally in the lower margin of recommendations from authorities. Segments of populations in Europe may thus have a deficient intake that may be presented by a deficient anti-oxidative capacity in various illnesses, in particular atherosclerotic disease, and this may influence the prognosis of the disease.Ischemic heart disease and heart failure are two conditions where increased oxidative stress has been convincingly demonstrated. Some of the intervention studies of anti-oxidative substances that have focused on selenium are discussed in this review. The interrelationship between selenium and coenzyme Q10, another anti-oxidant, is presented, pointing to a theoretical advantage in using both substances in an intervention if there are deficiencies within the population. Clinical results from an intervention study using both selenium and coenzyme Q10 in an elderly population are discussed, where reduction in cardiovascular mortality, a better cardiac function according to echocardiography, and finally a lower concentration of the biomarker NT-proBNP as a sign of lower myocardial wall tension could be seen in those on active treatment, compared to placebo.
    Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jtemb.2014.11.006 · 2.49 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In contrast to the current belief that cholesterol reduction with statins decreases atherosclerosis, we present a perspective that statins may be causative in coronary artery calcification and can function as mitochondrial toxins that impair muscle function in the heart and blood vessels through the depletion of coenzyme Q10 and 'heme A', and thereby ATP generation. Statins inhibit the synthesis of vitamin K2, the cofactor for matrix Gla-protein activation, which in turn protects arteries from calcification. Statins inhibit the biosynthesis of selenium containing proteins, one of which is glutathione peroxidase serving to suppress peroxidative stress. An impairment of selenoprotein biosynthesis may be a factor in congestive heart failure, reminiscent of the dilated cardiomyopathies seen with selenium deficiency. Thus, the epidemic of heart failure and atherosclerosis that plagues the modern world may paradoxically be aggravated by the pervasive use of statin drugs. We propose that current statin treatment guidelines be critically reevaluated.
    Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 02/2015; 8(2):1-11. DOI:10.1586/17512433.2015.1011125
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Statin-associated muscular adverse effects cover a wide range of symptoms, including asymptomatic increase of creatine kinase serum activity and life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. Different underlying pathomechanisms have been proposed. However, a unifying concept of the pathogenesis of statin-related muscular adverse effects has not emerged so far. In this review, we attempt to categorise these mechanisms along three levels. Firstly, among pharmacokinetic factors, it has been shown for some statins that inhibition of cytochrome P450-mediated hepatic biotransformation and hepatic uptake by transporter proteins contribute to an increase of systemic statin concentrations. Secondly, at the myocyte membrane level, cell membrane uptake transporters affect intracellular statin concentrations. Thirdly, at the intracellular level, inhibition of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase results in decreased intracellular levels of downstream metabolites (e.g. selenoproteins, ubiquinone, cholesterol) and alteration of gene expression (e.g. ryanodine receptor 3, glycine amidinotransferase). We also review current recommendations for prescribers.
    British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 02/2014; 78(3). DOI:10.1111/bcp.12360 · 3.69 Impact Factor