High levels of protection can be attained against Haemonchus contortus challenge infection in sheep using native antigens isolated from the gut of the adult parasite. However, vaccination with recombinant forms of these antigens, or components thereof, has disappointingly failed to generate similar levels of protection, suggesting that appropriate nematode glycosylation may be a prerequisite for protection. The free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans is closely related to H. contortus and has been shown to share similar glycan moieties. In order to investigate the potentially protective role of these glycan moieties, a complex set of glycoproteins was isolated from C. elegans using ConA-lectin chromatography and their efficacy as immunogens against H. contortus challenge infection evaluated in sheep. Despite the generation of a high titre systemic IgG antibody response to the C. elegans glycoproteins and the ability of these antibodies to bind to the microvillar surface of the gut of H. contortus, no protection against challenge infection was observed. Serum antibodies to the C. elegans glycoproteins cross-reacted with the H. contortus host-protective antigen, H-gal-GP, by ELISA, although the level of cross-reactivity was not of a magnitude considered protective. Qualitative differences were also determined between the glycan epitopes of the C. elegans ConA-binding proteins and those of H-gal-GP, suggesting the presence of H. contortus-specific patterns of glycosylation.
"Similarly, if glycan alone was so crucial it might be expected that preparations of native integral membrane intestinal cell glycoproteins from, e.g. Caenorhabditis elegans or Teladorsagia circumcincta might be almost as protective for Haemonchus as homologous preparations , but this is not the case (Redmond et al., 2004; Smith et al., 2001b). If glycan is important for protection, its effect must be due to conformational epitopes rather than to simple sugars, else fully denatured H11 would also protect. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a direct consequence of rising drug resistance among common nematodes of grazing animals, efforts toward state-of-the-art vaccine development have clearly intensified in recent years, fuelled primarily by the advent of newer technologies in gene discovery, by advancements in antigen identification, characterisation and production. In this regard, it is appropriate to review progress that has been made in generating helminth vaccines and in particular, vaccines against common nematodes of production animals for consumption. In like manner, it is prudent to evaluate barriers that have hindered progress in the past and continue to present obstacles that must be solved when utilizing and depending on host immunity to attenuate parasitic infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The majority of attempts to develop commercial vaccines for veterinary helminths have focussed on identifying protein antigens, which could be formulated as protective vaccines. Notable successes have been achieved for some cestode parasites, where recombinant proteins have been developed into highly effective vaccines. Although effective protection can also be obtained using some nematode proteins in their native forms, it has not yet been possible to formulate commercially successful vaccines for other helminth parasites of veterinary significance. Increasing evidence suggests that parasite glycan moieties may provide an alternative source of vaccine antigens, and increased attention is now being given to this class of compounds. In addition to identifying candidate protective antigen(s), an increased research effort is needed to develop appropriate strategies for the formulation and delivery of helminth vaccines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment and prevention of parasitism in both humans and livestock continues to rely almost exclusively on the use of antiparasitic drugs - an approach which has limitations, particularly as reinfection, which occurs rapidly in endemic regions, is not prevented. In addition, the widespread appearance of drug-resistant parasites of animals (Kaplan, 2004;) together with emerging evidence of resistance problems in human parasites (Fallon et al. 1995; Ismail et al. 1996; De Clerq et al. 1997; East African Network for Monitoring Antimalarial Treatment, 2003), emphasise the importance of developing alternative methods of control, with anti-parasite vaccines a prime target.
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