The additional value of chemotherapy to radiotherapy in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A meta-analysis of the published literature
ABSTRACT The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the additional value of neoadjuvant, concurrent, and/or adjuvant chemotherapy to radiation in the treatment of locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with regard to the overall survival (OS) and the incidence of local-regional recurrences (LRR) and distant metastases (DM).
To be eligible, full published studies had to deal with biopsy-proven NPC and have patients randomly assigned to receive conventional radiotherapy (66 to 70 Gy in 7 weeks) or radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy.
Ten randomized clinical studies were identified, including 2,450 patients. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) of death for all studies was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.95; P = .01) corresponding to an absolute survival benefit of 4% after 5 years. Three categories of trials were defined according to the sequence of chemotherapy, including neoadjuvant chemotherapy, at least concomitant chemoradiotherapy, and adjuvant chemotherapy. A significant interaction term (P = .02) was found among these three categories. The largest effect was found for concomitant chemotherapy, with a pooled HR of 0.48 (95% CI, 0.32 to 0.72), which corresponds to a survival benefit of 20% after 5 years. Comparable results were found for the incidence of LRR and DM.
The results of this study indicate that concomitant chemotherapy in addition to radiation is probably the most effective way to improve OS in NPC.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Ben J Slotman, Jun 09, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Background. The aim of the prospective phase II study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of concurrent carboplatin with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients and methods. Between October 2005 and November 2011, 73 stage II–IVB NPC patients received IMRT 70 Gy concurrently with three cycles of carboplatin (AUC 5) every three weeks, followed by three cycles of adjuvant carboplatin (AUC 5) and 5-FU (1,000 mg/m2/day for four days) every four weeks. All patients were evaluated for tumour response using response evaluation criteria in solid tumour (RECIST) criteria, survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier methods, and toxicities according to common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) version 4.0. Results. At three months after chemoradiation, 82.2% and 17.8% of patients achieved complete and partial response, respectively. With a median follow-up of 48.1 months (1.3–97.8 months), 9.6% and 17.8% had local recurrence and distant metastasis, respectively. The median survival was not reached. A three-year overall survival was 83.6% and a progression-free survival was 65.3%. Regarding treatment compliance, 97.2%, 68.5% and 69.8% completed radiation treatment, concurrent carboplatin and adjuvant chemotherapy, respectively. Grade 3–4 acute toxicities were oral mucositis (16.4%), dysphagia (16.4%), xerostomia (15.1%) and haematotoxicity (6.8%). Conclusions. Carboplatin concurrently with IMRT provided excellent tumour response, manageable toxicities and good compliance. This should be considered as an alternative treatment for NPC patients.Radiotherapy and Oncology 01/2014; 111(2):S28-S29. DOI:10.1016/S0167-8140(15)31245-7 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has represented a technical milestone that has facilitated the clinical implementation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of maximum primary tumor diameter (MPTD) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated using IMRT. Five-hundred and sixty-six patients with non-metastatic, histologically-confirmed NPC were retrospectively reviewed. MPTD was measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All patients were treated using IMRT; 87.5% (456/521) of patients with Stage T3-T4/N1-N3 disease also received cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify the optimal MPTD cut-off point and examine the prognostic value of combining MPTD with the current T classification criteria. Median follow-up for all patients was 36 months (range, 1-52 months). The 3-year overall survival (OS), failure-free survival (FFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and local relapse-free survival (LRFS) rates for patients with a MPTD ≤41 vs. >41 mm were 96.1% vs. 85.4%, 93.7% vs. 74.7%, 96.1% vs. 79.7%, and 98.1% vs. 92.9%, respectively (all P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, MPTD was an independent prognostic factor for OS, FFS, DMFS and LRFS in all patients (all P < 0.05). Among stage T3-T4 patients, the 3-year OS, FFS, DMFS, and LRFS rates for patients with a MPTD ≤41 vs. >41 mm were 96.9% vs. 84.5%, 95.4% vs. 73.5%, 96.1% vs. 79.2%, and 99.3% vs. 92.6%, respectively (all P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, MPTD was also an independent prognostic factor for OS, FFS and DMFS in stage T3-T4 patients (all P < 0.05), and the difference in LRFS was almost statistically significant (P = 0.05). ROC curves verified that inclusion of MPTD improved the predictive value of the current T classification criteria (P < 0.001). MPTD was an independent prognostic factor in patients with NPC treated using IMRT, and significantly improved the prognostic value of the current T classification criteria for NPC.BMC Cancer 04/2015; 15(1):305. DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1288-8 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The impact of standard chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) as preferred therapy for elderly patients (age≥60 years) with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unclear. Therefore, a strict matched cohort study was conducted to compare the survival and treatment toxicity of standard chemo-radiotherapy in the elderly NPC patients with those of radiotherapy (RT) alone. From 1998 to 2003, total 498 newly diagnosed elderly non-metastatic NPC patients were abstracted and classified into two groups by the treatments they received. For each patient in the CRT group, a matched pair in RT group was identified by matching for gender, age, histological type, T and N classifications, RT dose to primary tumor and neck nodes, and days of radiotherapy. Treatment tolerability and toxicity were clarified, and treatment outcomes were calculated and compared between the two groups. Two groups were well balanced in clinical characteristics because of the strict matching conditions. Totally 87 pairs can be assessed according to the criteria. The 5-year OS, CSS, FFS, and LR-FFS for CRT and RT groups were 62% versus 40% (P=0.013), 67% versus 47% (P=0.018), 65% versus 53% (log-rank: P=0.064, Breslow: P=0.048), and 88% versus 72%, (P=0.019), respectively. There was no significant difference in 5-year D-FFS between the two groups (75% vs. 73%, P=0.456). The CRT group experienced significantly more Grade ≥3 acute mucositis (46.0% vs. 28.7%, P= 0.019). We concluded that standard chemo-radiotherapy can achieve a reasonable local and regional control in elderly NPC patients with acceptable and reversible acute toxicity. However, distant metastasis remains the dominant failure pattern. When the elderly NPC patients are in good performance status following a complete evaluation of overall functional status and comorbidity conditions, standard chemo-radiotherapy is worthy of recommendation.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0119593. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0119593 · 3.53 Impact Factor