Laboratory diagnosis and surveillance of human respiratory viruses by PCR in Victoria, Australia, 2002-2003.
ABSTRACT Respiratory viruses were identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in more than 4,200 specimens collected during 2002 and 2003 in Victoria, Australia from patients admitted to hospitals or participating in an influenza surveillance program. Influenza viruses and picornaviruses were important causes of morbidity in both years. Additional testing of picornavirus-positive samples suggested that rhinoviruses but not enteroviruses were more likely to be associated with respiratory symptoms, irrespective of the season in which they circulated. Detection of influenza viruses was strongly associated with the clinical symptoms of cough, fever, and fatigue; but each of the other respiratory viruses occasionally caused these symptoms or was responsible for symptoms severe enough to require hospitalization. Human coronaviruses HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E circulated at low levels throughout the study period with peak activity in winter, but overall did not circulate as widely as has often been reported for these agents. Evidence for the human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was only sought in the second year of the study and revealed low-level circulation of this virus, mainly in the cooler months among the very young and adult populations. The detection rate of all viruses declined with increasing age of the patient, particularly in hospital patients. Infection with more than one respiratory virus occurred in a small number of patients; picornaviruses were most commonly implicated in these dual infections.
SourceAvailable from: Shengjie Lai[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRIs) are an important cause of acute illnesses and mortality worldwide and in China. However, a large-scale study on the prevalence of viral infections across multiple provinces and seasons has not been previously reported from China. Here, we aimed to identify the viral etiologies associated with ALRIs from 22 Chinese provinces.PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e99419. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099419 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence, epidemiology and genetic diversity of human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) among adult patients with acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Beijing,five hundred and fifty-nine nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from adult patients with ARI in Beijing. The prevalence of HCoV-OC43 infection among these patients was assessed using two different OneStep reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. The epidemiological profiles of the patients with HCoV-OC43 infection were described. Partial S and N genes of HCoV-OC43 circulating strains were sequenced followed by phylogenetic analysis and amino acid alignment. Our results showed that the prevalence of HCoV-OC43 infection was 12.52% (95% CI: 9.78-15.26%), and the epidemic peak occurred in autumn. Fifty partial S and 40 partial N fragments were obtained from these patients. Phylogenetic analysis based on neighbour-joining method showed that at least three distinct clusters (A, B, C/D) of HCoV-OC43 strains were circulating among adult patients with ARI in Beijing. In addition, some novel unique clusters (UNT) of HCoV-OC43 were found in the S- and N-based phylogenetic trees. Furthermore, consensus amino acids substitutes for each cluster were also found after alignment of partial S or N sequence coding region in this study. In conclusion, we herein describe the prevalence of HCoV-OC43 among adult patients and provide substantial evidence for the genetic diversity of HCoV-OC43 circulating in Beijing.PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e100781. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100781 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The test-negative design is a variant of the case–control study being increasingly used to study influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). In these studies, patients with influenza-like illness are tested for influenza. Vaccine coverage is compared between those testing positive versus those testing negative to estimate VE. Objectives: We reviewed features in the design, analysis and reporting of 85 published test-negative studies. Data sources: Studies were identified from PubMed, reference lists and email updates. Study eligibility: All studies using the test-negative design reporting end-of-season estimates were included. Study appraisal: Design features that may affect the validity and comparability of reported estimates were reviewed, including setting, study period, source population, case definition, exposure and outcome ascertainment and statistical model. Results: There was considerable variation in the analytic approach, with 68 unique statistical models identified among the studies. Conclusion: Harmonization of analytic approaches may improve the potential for pooling VE estimates.Expert Review of Vaccines 10/2014; 13(12). DOI:10.1586/14760584.2014.966695 · 4.22 Impact Factor