Respiratory viruses were identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in more than 4,200 specimens collected during 2002 and 2003 in Victoria, Australia from patients admitted to hospitals or participating in an influenza surveillance program. Influenza viruses and picornaviruses were important causes of morbidity in both years. Additional testing of picornavirus-positive samples suggested that rhinoviruses but not enteroviruses were more likely to be associated with respiratory symptoms, irrespective of the season in which they circulated. Detection of influenza viruses was strongly associated with the clinical symptoms of cough, fever, and fatigue; but each of the other respiratory viruses occasionally caused these symptoms or was responsible for symptoms severe enough to require hospitalization. Human coronaviruses HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E circulated at low levels throughout the study period with peak activity in winter, but overall did not circulate as widely as has often been reported for these agents. Evidence for the human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was only sought in the second year of the study and revealed low-level circulation of this virus, mainly in the cooler months among the very young and adult populations. The detection rate of all viruses declined with increasing age of the patient, particularly in hospital patients. Infection with more than one respiratory virus occurred in a small number of patients; picornaviruses were most commonly implicated in these dual infections.
"Specimens positive for HCoV-OC43 were tested for coinfection with other respiratory viruses, including HCoV-229E, HCoV-NL63, HCoV-HKU1, Flu A and B (influenza A and B viruses, respectively), PIV 1, 2, 3 (parainfluenza virus types 1, 2 and 3, respectively), RSV (respiratory syncytial virus), hMPV (human metapneumovirus), adenovirus and picornaviruses (including enterovirus and rhinovirus), as described previously , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence, epidemiology and genetic diversity of human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) among adult patients with acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Beijing,five hundred and fifty-nine nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from adult patients with ARI in Beijing. The prevalence of HCoV-OC43 infection among these patients was assessed using two different OneStep reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. The epidemiological profiles of the patients with HCoV-OC43 infection were described. Partial S and N genes of HCoV-OC43 circulating strains were sequenced followed by phylogenetic analysis and amino acid alignment. Our results showed that the prevalence of HCoV-OC43 infection was 12.52% (95% CI: 9.78-15.26%), and the epidemic peak occurred in autumn. Fifty partial S and 40 partial N fragments were obtained from these patients. Phylogenetic analysis based on neighbour-joining method showed that at least three distinct clusters (A, B, C/D) of HCoV-OC43 strains were circulating among adult patients with ARI in Beijing. In addition, some novel unique clusters (UNT) of HCoV-OC43 were found in the S- and N-based phylogenetic trees. Furthermore, consensus amino acids substitutes for each cluster were also found after alignment of partial S or N sequence coding region in this study. In conclusion, we herein describe the prevalence of HCoV-OC43 among adult patients and provide substantial evidence for the genetic diversity of HCoV-OC43 circulating in Beijing.
PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e100781. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100781 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Nucleic acid testing (NAT) using inhouse PCRs assay tested for influenza.11 Other respiratory pathogens tested included parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, picornavirus (enterovirus, rhinovirus), adenovirus, coronaviruses 229E and OC43 and human metapneumovirus using a published method.12 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abundant, indirect epidemiological evidence indicates that influenza contributes to all-cause mortality and cardiovascular hospitalisations with studies showing increases in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and death during the influenza season.
To investigate whether influenza is a significant and unrecognised underlying precipitant of AMI.
Tertiary referral hospital in Sydney, Australia, during 2008 to 2010.
Cases were inpatients with AMI and controls were outpatients without AMI at a hospital in Sydney, Australia.
Primary outcome was laboratory evidence of influenza. Secondary outcome was baseline self-reported acute respiratory tract infection.
Of 559 participants, 34/275 (12.4%) cases and 19/284 (6.7%) controls had influenza (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.54); half were vaccinated. None were recognised as having influenza during their clinical encounter. After adjustment, influenza infection was no longer a significant predictor of recent AMI. However, influenza vaccination was significantly protective (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.85), with a vaccine effectiveness of 45% (95% CI 15% to 65%).
Recent influenza infection was an unrecognised comorbidity in almost 10% of hospital patients. Influenza did not predict AMI, but vaccination was significantly protective but underused. The potential population health impact of influenza vaccination, particularly in the age group 50-64 years, who are at risk for AMI but not targeted for vaccination, should be further explored. Our data should inform vaccination policy and cardiologists should be aware of missed opportunities to vaccinate individuals with ischaemic heart disease against influenza.
"From 272 samples collected from hospitalized children because of ARI, 54.4% presented viral etiology. These data are in accordance with previous studies that reported respiratory viruses as the main cause of ARI, consisting of rates averaging from 30 to 75.5% (7, 11, 26). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Viruses are the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in childhood and the main viruses involved are Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV), Human Metapneumovirus (HMPV), Influenzavirus A and B (FLUA and FLUB), Human Parainfluenza Virus 1, 2 and 3 (HPIV1, 2 and 3) and Human Rhinovirus (HRV). The purposes of this study were to detect respiratory viruses in hospitalized children younger than six years and identify the influence of temperature and relative air humidity on the detected viruses. Samples of nasopharyngeal washes were collected from hospitalized children between May/2004 and September/2005. Methods of viral detection were RT-PCR, PCR and HRV amplicons were confirmed by hybridization. Results showed 54% (148/272) of viral positivity. HRSV was detected in 29% (79/272) of the samples; HRV in 23.1% (63/272); HPIV3 in 5.1% (14/272); HMPV in 3.3% (9/272); HPIV1 in 2.9% (8/272); FLUB in 1.4% (4/272), FLUA in 1.1% (3/272), and HPIV2 in 0.3% (1/272). The highest detection rates occurred mainly in the spring 2004 and in the autumn 2005. It was observed that viral respiratory infections tend to increase as the relative air humidity decreases, showing significant association with monthly averages of minimal temperature and minimal relative air humidity. In conclusion, viral respiratory infections vary according to temperature and relative air humidity and viral respiratory infections present major incidences it coldest and driest periods.
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