Monocytes of allergics and non-allergics produce, store and release the neurotrophins NGF, BDNF and NT-3.
ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown that neurotrophins (NTs) are involved in inflammatory processes. Elevated plasma levels of NTs were found allergic diseases with the highest levels in allergic asthma. However, the exact cellular sources involved in the regulation and release of neurotrophins in allergic inflammation are still not well defined.
The aim of this study was to assess whether monocytes of allergic and non-allergic subjects produce, store and release the neurotrophins NGF, BDNF and NT-3.
Monocytes of allergic and non-allergic donors were purified by immunomagnetic selection. APAAP-staining for the presence of NTs and their receptors was performed. RT-PCR and Western blot evaluated the production and storage of NTs. Monocytes were incubated and supernatants were collected for measurement of neurotrophic factors after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as inflammatory stimulus. The neurotrophin content in lysates and cell culture supernatants was determined by ELISA.
Human monocytes express the neurotrophins NGF, BDNF and NT-3 but also their specific receptors TrkA, TrkB and TrkC. RT-PCR amplification of isolated mRNA demonstrated expression of the examined neurotrophins. Proteins were detectable by Western blot. NTs were found in the monocyte lysates and supernatants at different levels in allergic and non-allergic donors. Cell stimulation with LPS leads to release of NGF and NT3.
Monocytes, produce, store and release NGF, BDNF and NT-3. They are a possible source of elevated neurotrophin levels found in allergy and asthma.
- SourceAvailable from: Wallace Chamon[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE. To characterize fluorescent bone marrow cells (YFP+ BMCs) in the thy1-YFP mouse and determine if they promote trigeminal ganglion (TG) cell neurite growth. METHODS. Excimer laser annular keratectomy was performed in thy1-YFP mice, and corneas were imaged. BMCs were harvested from femur and tibia and the expression of surface markers on YFP+ BMCs was analyzed by flow cytometry. The immunosuppressive action of BMCs (YFP+ and YFP-) was evaluated in an allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). Neurotrophic action of BMCs (YFP+ and YFP-) was determined in compartmental and transwell cultures of dissociated TG cells. RESULTS. Following annular keratectomy, YFP+ BMCs infiltrated the cornea. YFP+ BMCs shared surface markers (CD11b+Gr1+Ly6C+Ly6G-F4/80low) with monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), had similar morphology, and suppressed T cell proliferation in allogenic MLR in a dose-dependent manner. YFP+ BMCs, but not YFP- BMCs, significantly increased growth of TG neurites in vitro. When cultured in a transwell with TG neurites, YFP+ BMCs expressed neurotrophins and secreted nerve growth factor (NGF) in conditioned medium. YFP+ BMCs that infiltrated the cornea maintained their phenotype and actions (neuronal and immune). CONCLUSIONS. YFP+ BMCs in thy1-YFP mice have immunophenotypic features of MDSCs. They secrete NGF and promote neuroregeneration. Their immunosuppressive and neurotrophic actions are preserved after corneal infiltration. These findings increase our understanding of the beneficial roles played by leukocyte trafficking in the cornea and may lead to therapeutic strategies that use NGF-secreting myeloid cells to repair diseased or injured neurons.Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 08/2013; · 3.43 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Classical literature indicates that acupuncture has been used for millennia to treat numerous inflammatory conditions, including allergic rhinitis. Recent research has examined some of the mechanisms underpinning acupuncture's anti-inflammatory effects which include mediation by sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been reported to mediate the antioedema effects of acupuncture, but not antihyperalgesic actions during inflammation. Other reported anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture include an antihistamine action and downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines (such as TNF- , IL-1 , IL-6, and IL-10), proinflammatory neuropeptides (such as SP, CGRP, and VIP), and neurotrophins (such as NGF and BDNF) which can enhance and prolong inflammatory response. Acupuncture has been reported to suppress the expression of COX-1, COX-2, and iNOS during experimentally induced inflammation. Downregulation of the expression and sensitivity of the transient receptor potential vallinoid 1 (TRPV1) after acupuncture has been reported. In summary, acupuncture may exert anti-inflammatory effects through a complex neuro-endocrino-immunological network of actions. Many of these generic anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture are of direct relevance to allergic rhinitis; however, more research is needed to elucidate specifically how immune mechanisms might be modulated by acupuncture in allergic rhinitis, and to this end a proposed model is offered to guide further research.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:591796. · 2.18 Impact Factor
- Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology. 07/2014; 26(3):379-389.