Hepatitis C virus coinfection increases mortality in HIV-infected patients in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era: Data from the HIV Atlanta VA Cohort Study
ABSTRACT We compared survival among patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) with that among patients infected solely with HIV.
Descriptive, bivariate, and survival analyses were conducted using data for all HIV-positive patients who were seen during the period of January 1997 through May 2001 in the HIV Atlanta VA Cohort Study (HAVACS) and who had been tested for HCV antibody since 1992 (n=970).
The prevalence of HCV coinfection was 31.6%, and coinfected patients were significantly more likely to be older, black, and injection drug users. In multivariate analysis, the duration of survival from the time of diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was significantly shortened for HIV-HCV-coinfected patients (hazard ratio [HR], 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-3.10), as was time from HIV diagnosis to death (HR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.26-4.82). Recovery of CD4+ cell count from the time of initiation of HAART did not differ significantly by coinfection status.
HCV coinfection is common in this HIV-infected population and negatively affects survival from the time of both HIV and AIDS diagnoses, although this is apparently not associated with a difference in CD4+ cell recovery while receiving HAART. These findings differ from those of a previous study that was conducted in this cohort in the pre-HAART era, which found no association between HIV-HCV coinfection and HIV disease progression.
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- "Similarly, some ISRN Gastroenterology studies have shown that the incidence of AIDS defining illnesses are increased among HIV/HCV infected individuals compared to those with HIV monoinfection   , while others have not confirmed this  . Regardless of the specific outcomes, it is well established that individuals with HIV/HCV coinfection have significantly higher morbidity and mortality compared to individuals with HIV monoinfection   . However, specific predictors of mortality and how they differ in the HIV/HCV coinfected versus HIV monoinfected individuals in the era of HAART have not been well documented. "
ABSTRACT: Background. Understanding the predictors of mortality in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus (HIV/HCV) coinfection can be useful in management of these patients. Methods. We used the Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV Infected Veterans (ERCHIVES) for these analyses. Multivariate Cox-regression models were used to determine predictors of mortality. Results. Among 8,039 HIV infected veterans, 5251 (65.3%) had HCV coinfection. The all-cause mortality rate was 74.1 (70.4-77.9) per 1000 person-years (PY) among veterans with HIV/HCV coinfection and 39.8 (36.3-43.6) per 1000 PY for veterans with HIV monoinfection. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of all-cause mortality for HCV infection was 1.58 (1.36-1.84). Positive predictors of mortality included decompensated liver disease (2.33 (1.98-2.74)), coronary artery disease (1.74 (1.32-2.28)), chronic kidney disease (1.62 (1.36-1.92)), and anemia (1.58 (1.31-1.89)). Factors associated with reduced mortality included HCV treatment (0.41 (0.27-0.63)) and higher CD4 count (0.90 (0.87-0.93) per 100 cells/ μ L higher count). Data were insufficient to make informative analyses of the role of HCV virologic response. Conclusion. HCV coinfection was associated with substantial increased risk of mortality among HIV infected veterans. HCV treatment was associated with significantly lower risk of mortality.04/2014; 2014:764540. DOI:10.1155/2014/764540
- "In the current study, although the absolute number (n = 3) was relatively small for analysis, the rates of anti-HCV detection were comparable in males (0.8%) and females (0.3%). Although the association between HCV positivity and CD4 count shows conflicting reports (Greub et al., 2000; Anderson et al., 2004; Hershow et al., 2005) It would appear that the immunological status of monoinfection is higher than HBV/HCVab coinfection, as evidenced by the higher CD4 counts in HIV monoinfected than HIV-coinfected with HBV/HCVab. Contrary to observations made Idoko et al in the North-central (Idoko et al., 2009) and Ortegbayo et al in South-western part of Nigeria (Otegbayo et al., 2011). "
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ABSTRACT: The clinical and public health implications of the convergence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and chronic viral hepatitis in sub-Saharan Africa are poorly understood. This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), and the impact of co-infection on baseline serum alanine transaminase (ALT), CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4) count, and plasma HIV-RNA (viral load) in a cohort of HIV-infected Nigerians. A retrospective study was conducted, on eligible treatment-naive patients who presented between August 2004 and February 2007 to the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. Demographic data and pre-treatment laboratory results (hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HCV antibodies (anti-HCV), ALT, CD4 count and viral load) were retrieved from the medical records. Fisher's exact, two sample t-tests, and the Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to compare groups. A logistic regression model was fitted to explore characteristics associated with co-infection status. A total of 1779 HIV-infected patients (male: female ratio, 1:2) met inclusion criteria. HBsAg was present in 11.9%, anti-HCV in 4.8% and both markers in 1%. HBsAg was more common among males than females (15.4% vs 10.1%, respectively p = 0.001) while anti-HCV was detected in a similar proportion of males and females (5.3% versus 4.6%, respectively p = 0.559). HIV-infected patients with anti-HCV alone had a lower mean baseline CD4 count compared to those without anti-HCV or HBsAg (197 cells/mm3 vs 247 cells/mm3, respectively p = 0.008). Serum ALT was higher among patients with HBsAg compared to those without HBsAg or anti-HCV (43 International Units (IU) vs. 39 IU, respectively p = 0.015). Male gender was associated with HBV co-infection on logistic regression (OR1.786; 95% CI, 1.306-2.443; p < 0.005). More HIV-infected females than males presented for care in this cohort. We identified a relatively high prevalence of HBV and HCV co-infection in general, and a higher rate of HBV co-infection among males than females. Pre-treatment CD4 count was significantly lower among those with HCV co-infection, while ALT was slightly higher among those with HBV co-infection. Triple infection with HIV, HBV and HCV was present in a small but significant proportion of patients. These findings underscore the importance of testing for HBV and HCV in all HIV-infected persons in our setting.Annals of hepatology: official journal of the Mexican Association of Hepatology 7(2):152-6. · 2.19 Impact Factor