Retroviral Delivery of Homeobox D3 Gene Induces Cerebral Angiogenesis in Mice

Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, The Center for Cerebrovascular Research, University of California, San Francisco, California 94410, USA.
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism (Impact Factor: 5.41). 11/2004; 24(11):1280-7. DOI: 10.1097/01.WCB.0000141770.09022.AB
Source: PubMed


Angiogenesis is regulated by concerted actions of angiogenic and angiostatic factors. Homeobox D3 gene (HOXD3) is a potent proangiogenic transcription factor that promotes angiogenesis by modulating the expression of matrix-degrading proteinases, integrins, and extracellular matrix components. Application of HOXD3 can promote angiogenesis in the skin, but its role in other vascular beds has not been examined. The authors examined HOXD3 expression in human brain vessels by in situ hybridization. Although little or no HOXD3 mRNA was detected in normal brain vessels, increased levels of HOXD3 and its target gene, alpha V beta 3, were found in angiogenic vessels in human brain arteriovenous malformations. The authors further investigated whether HOXD3 plays a role in cerebral angiogenesis in a murine model. Expression of HOXD3 in mouse brain was achieved through retroviral vector-mediated HOXD3 gene transfer. HOXD3 expression lead to a significant induction of cerebral angiogenesis as shown by quantitative microvessel counting (HOXD3: 241 +/- 19 vessels/mm2 vs. saline: 150 +/- 14 vessels/mm2, P < 0.05). The data also showed that focal cerebral blood flow was increased in the angiogenic region with less vascular leakage. Moreover, expression of HOXD3 led to an increase in the expression of a direct downstream target gene alpha V beta 3 integrin. The data suggest that HOXD3 may play an important role in regulating cerebral angiogenesis, and that gene transfer of HOXD3 may provide a novel and potent means to stimulate angiogenesis.

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Available from: Guo-Yuan Yang, Mar 14, 2014
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    • "In summary, our data provides evidence that microglia, the principal immune effector cells in the CNS, can regulate BEC proliferation in a biphasic manner by altering the balance of TNF and TGF-β1. As BEC proliferation is an early stage of the angiogenic process, and new vessel formation leads to increased cerebral blood flow [39] and clinical outcome [40,41], our findings suggest that a controlled level of microglial activation and TNF release might prove beneficial in the treatment of stroke patients by promoting BEC proliferation and subsequent neovascularization. In light of the recent finding that microglia protect neurons from ischemia via a TNF-mediated mechanism [42], this approach has the potential to stimulate a positive outcome via two separate mechanisms. "
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of cerebral ischemia and other neuroinflammatory states have demonstrated a strong association between new vessel formation and microglial recruitment and activation, raising the possibility that microglia may be involved in promoting angiogenesis. As endothelial cell proliferation is a fundamental early step in angiogenesis, the aim of this study was to test this hypothesis by examining the influence of microglial secreted factors on brain endothelial cell (BEC) proliferation using BrdU incorporation. Primary cultures of mouse BEC, microglia and astrocytes were used in this study. Proliferation of BEC was examined by BrdU incorporation. ELISA was used to quantify TNF and TGF-β1 levels within cell culture supernatants. Microglia regulated BEC proliferation in a biphasic manner; microglia conditioned medium (MG-CM) from resting microglia inhibited, while that from activated microglia promoted BEC proliferation. A screen of microglial cytokines revealed that BEC proliferation was inhibited by TGF-β1, but promoted by TNF. ELISA showed that TNF and TGF-β1 were both present in MG-CM, and that while TGF-β1 dominated in resting MG-CM, TNF levels were massively increased in activated MG-CM, shifting the balance in favor of TNF. Antibody-blocking studies revealed that the influence of MG-CM to inhibit or promote BEC proliferation was largely attributable to the cytokines TGF-β1 and TNF, respectively. This data suggests that microglial activation state might be an important determinant of cerebral angiogenesis; inhibiting BEC proliferation and neovascularization in the normal central nervous system (CNS), but stimulating the growth of new capillaries under neuroinflammatory conditions.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 12/2010; 7(1):89. DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-7-89 · 5.41 Impact Factor
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    • "What determines this specificity is currently unknown, but it seems likely that the a5 and b3 genes contain hypoxia-response elements. It has also been shown that retroviral delivery of the transcription factor HoxD3 to the brain promotes angiogenic sprouting, and strong induction of avb3 integrin on angiogenic capillaries (Chen et al, 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral angiogenesis is an important adaptive response to hypoxia. As the alpha v beta 3 integrin is induced on angiogenic vessels in the ischemic central nervous system (CNS), and the suggested angiogenic role for this integrin in other systems, it is important to determine whether the alpha v beta 3 integrin is an important mediator of cerebral angiogenesis. alpha v beta 3 integrin expression was examined in a model of cerebral hypoxia, in which mice were subject to hypoxia (8% O(2)) for 0, 4, 7, or 14 days. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis revealed that in the hypoxic CNS, alpha v beta 3 integrin was strongly induced on angiogenic brain endothelial cells (BEC), along with its ligand vitronectin. In the hypoxia model, beta 3 integrin-null mice showed no obvious defect in cerebral angiogenesis. However, early in the angiogenic process, BEC in these mice showed an increased mitotic index that correlated closely with increased alpha 5 integrin expression. In vitro experiments confirmed alpha 5 integrin upregulation on beta 3 integrin-null BEC, which also correlated with increased BEC proliferation on fibronectin. These studies confirm hypoxic induction of alpha v beta 3 integrin on angiogenic vessels, but suggest distinct roles for the BEC integrins alpha v beta 3 and alpha 5 beta 1 in cerebral angiogenesis, with alpha v beta 3 having a nonessential role, and alpha 5 beta 1 promoting BEC proliferation.
    Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 05/2010; 30(5):1031-43. DOI:10.1038/jcbfm.2009.276 · 5.41 Impact Factor
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    • "HoxD3 activates αvβ3 and uPA, resulting in the transformation of resting endothelial cells to an angiogenic state (Penta et al., 1999; Rezaee et al., 2002). We have previously reported that HoxD3 overexpression can induce brain angiogenesis (Chen et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is a novel angiomatrix protein that has been shown to stimulate a potent angiogenic response and promote functional recovery in hind-limb and cardiac ischemia in animal models; however, its impact on cerebral angiogenesis is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether Del-1 overexpression via gene transfer induces cerebral angiogenesis in a murine model, and examined Del-1 expression after ischemic stroke. Cerebral Del-1 overexpression was achieved with AAV (adeno-associated virus) transduction system via stereotactic injection. Control mice were injected with AAV-lacZ. Del-1 gene transduction led to a significant induction of cerebral angiogenesis compared to AAV-lacZ treatment at 4 weeks after gene transfer (Del-1: 97+/-7 vs lacZ: 64+/-28, vessels/field, p<0.05). Mice transduced with AAV-Del-1 showed significantly elevated vascular densities for up to 6 weeks after gene delivery. In addition, double immunofluorescent staining showed co-localization of endothelial cell marker CD31 with BrdU (specific marker for proliferating cells), indicating that Del-1 promoted endogenous endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Our immunohistochemical staining also showed that Del-1 expression was markedly up-regulated in the peri-infarct area at 3 days after permanent focal cerebral ischemia compared to the sham-operated non-ischemic control. Our data suggest that Del-1 may participate in modulating cerebral angiogenesis, and that gene transfer of Del-1 may provide a novel and potent means for stimulating cerebral angiogenesis.
    Brain Research 08/2008; 1219:1-7. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2008.05.003 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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