Article

CT of benign hypervascular liver nodules in autoimmune hepatitis.

Department of Radiology, University of California-San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Ave., San Francisco, CA 94143-0628, USA.
American Journal of Roentgenology (Impact Factor: 2.9). 01/2005; 183(6):1573-6. DOI: 10.2214/ajr.183.6.01831573
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this report is to describe the frequency and histopathologic basis of benign hypervascular liver nodules seen on CT in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. CONCLUSION: Benign hypervascular liver nodules may be seen on CT in patients with cirrhosis due to autoimmune hepatitis and may represent large regenerative nodules. This phenomenon is important to recognize because of the potential for confusion with hepatocellular carcinoma.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
98 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fastest growing cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Cirrhosis is the most important risk factor for HCC. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the modality of choice for working up nodules detected at screening, for staging known HCC, and for follow-up. In cirrhotic livers, the combination of tumor arterial phase hyperenhancement plus washout and/or capsular enhancement is highly specific for HCC and can make biopsy unnecessary. Newer imaging techniques may further improve MR imaging sensitivity for HCC and help to characterize tumors with atypical dynamic enhancement patterns.
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America. 08/2014; 22(3):315–335.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma and extrahepatic malignancies can complicate the course of autoimmune hepatitis, and these occurrences may increase in frequency as the survival of patients with cirrhosis is extended and the prospect of new nonstandard immune-modifying intervention is realized. The frequency of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with autoimmune hepatitis and cirrhosis is 1-9 %, and annual occurrence in patients with cirrhosis is 1.1-1.9 %. The standardized incidence ratio for hepatocellular carcinoma in autoimmune hepatitis is 23.3 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 7.5-54.3) in Sweden, and the standardized mortality ratio for hepatobiliary cancer is 42.3 (95 % CI 20.3-77.9) in New Zealand. The principal risk factor is long-standing cirrhosis, and patients at risk are characterized mainly by cirrhosis for ≥10 years, manifestations of portal hypertension, persistent liver inflammation, and immunosuppressive therapy for ≥3 years. Multiple molecular disturbances, including the accumulation of senescent hepatocytes because of telomere shortening, step-wise accumulation of chromosomal injuries, and aberrations in transcription factors and genes, may contribute to the risk. Extraheptic malignancies of diverse cell types occur in 5 % in an unpredictable fashion. The standardized incidence ratio is 2.7 (95 % CI 1.8-3.9) in New Zealand, and non-melanoma skin cancers are most common. Outcomes are related to the nature and stage of the tumor at diagnosis. Surveillance recommendations have not been promulgated, but hepatic ultrasonography every six months in patients with cirrhosis is a consideration. Routine health screening measures for other malignancies should be applied diligently.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 01/2013; · 2.26 Impact Factor
  • Article: Reply.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 06/2013; 58(6):1809-10. · 2.26 Impact Factor