CT of benign hypervascular liver nodules in autoimmune hepatitis.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this report is to describe the frequency and histopathologic basis of benign hypervascular liver nodules seen on CT in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. CONCLUSION: Benign hypervascular liver nodules may be seen on CT in patients with cirrhosis due to autoimmune hepatitis and may represent large regenerative nodules. This phenomenon is important to recognize because of the potential for confusion with hepatocellular carcinoma.
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ABSTRACT: Autoimmune hepatitis frequently has an abrupt onset of symptoms, and it can present with acute liver failure. The abrupt presentation can indicate spontaneous exacerbation of a pre-existent chronic disease, newly created disease, a superimposed infectious or toxic injury, or new disease after viral infection, drug therapy, or liver transplantation. Deficiencies in the classical phenotype may include a low serum immunoglobulin G level and low or absent titers of the conventional autoantibodies. The original revised diagnostic scoring system of the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group can guide the diagnostic evaluation, but low scores do not preclude the diagnosis. Liver tissue examination is valuable to exclude viral-related or drug-induced liver injury and support the diagnosis by demonstrating centrilobular necrosis (usually with interface hepatitis), lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, hepatocyte rosettes, and fibrosis. Conventional therapy with prednisone and azathioprine induces clinical and laboratory improvement in 68-75 % of patients with acute presentations, and high dose prednisone or prednisolone (preferred drug) is effective in 20-100 % of patients with acute severe (fulminant) presentations. Failure to improve or worsening of any clinical or laboratory feature within 2 weeks of treatment or worsening of a mathematical model of end-stage liver disease within 7 days justifies liver transplantation in acute liver failure. Liver transplantation for acute severe (fulminant) autoimmune hepatitis is as successful as liver transplantation for autoimmune hepatitis with a chronic presentation and other types of acute liver failure (patient survival >1 year, 80-94 %). Liver transplantation should not be delayed or superseded by protracted corticosteroid therapy or the empiric institution of nonstandard medications.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 10/2012; · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma and extrahepatic malignancies can complicate the course of autoimmune hepatitis, and these occurrences may increase in frequency as the survival of patients with cirrhosis is extended and the prospect of new nonstandard immune-modifying intervention is realized. The frequency of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with autoimmune hepatitis and cirrhosis is 1-9 %, and annual occurrence in patients with cirrhosis is 1.1-1.9 %. The standardized incidence ratio for hepatocellular carcinoma in autoimmune hepatitis is 23.3 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 7.5-54.3) in Sweden, and the standardized mortality ratio for hepatobiliary cancer is 42.3 (95 % CI 20.3-77.9) in New Zealand. The principal risk factor is long-standing cirrhosis, and patients at risk are characterized mainly by cirrhosis for ≥10 years, manifestations of portal hypertension, persistent liver inflammation, and immunosuppressive therapy for ≥3 years. Multiple molecular disturbances, including the accumulation of senescent hepatocytes because of telomere shortening, step-wise accumulation of chromosomal injuries, and aberrations in transcription factors and genes, may contribute to the risk. Extraheptic malignancies of diverse cell types occur in 5 % in an unpredictable fashion. The standardized incidence ratio is 2.7 (95 % CI 1.8-3.9) in New Zealand, and non-melanoma skin cancers are most common. Outcomes are related to the nature and stage of the tumor at diagnosis. Surveillance recommendations have not been promulgated, but hepatic ultrasonography every six months in patients with cirrhosis is a consideration. Routine health screening measures for other malignancies should be applied diligently.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 01/2013; · 2.26 Impact Factor
Article: Reply.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 06/2013; 58(6):1809-10. · 2.26 Impact Factor