CC and CX3C chemokines differentially interact with the N terminus of the human cytomegalovirus-encoded US28 receptor.
ABSTRACT Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the causative agent of life-threatening systemic diseases in immunocompromised patients as well as a risk factor for vascular pathologies, like atherosclerosis, in immunocompetent individuals. HCMV encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), referred to as US28, that displays homology to the human chemokine receptor CCR1 and binds several chemokines of the CC family as well as the CX3C chemokine fractalkine with high affinity. Most importantly, following HCMV infection, US28 activates several intracellular pathways, either constitutively or in a chemokine-dependent manner. In this study, our goal was to understand the molecular interactions between chemokines and the HCMV-encoded US28 receptor. To achieve this goal, a double approach has been used, consisting in the analysis of both receptor and ligand mutants. This approach has led us to identify several amino acids located in the N terminus of US28 that differentially contribute to the high affinity binding of CC versus CX3C chemokines. Additionally, our results highlight the importance of secondary modifications occurring at US28, such as sulfation, for ligand recognition. Finally, the effects of chemokine dimerization and interaction with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on chemokine binding and activation of US28 were investigated as well using CCL4 as model ligand. In line with the two-state model describing chemokine/receptor interaction, we show that an aromatic residue in the N-loop region of CCL4 promotes tight binding to US28, whereas receptor activation depends on the presence of the N terminus of CCL4, as shown previously for CCR5.
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ABSTRACT: Members of the cytomegalovirus family each encode two or more genes with significant homology to G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). In rodent models of pathogenesis, these viral encoded GPCRs play functionally significant roles, as their deletion results in crippled viruses that cannot traffic properly and/or replicate in virally important target cells. Of the four HCMV encoded GPCRs, US28 has garnered the most attention due to the fact that it exhibits both agonist-independent and agonist-dependent signaling activity and has been demonstrated to promote cellular migration and proliferation. Thus, it appears that the CMV GPCRs play important roles in viral replication in vivo as well as promote the development of virus-associated pathology. In the current study we have utilized a series of HCMV/US28 recombinants to investigate the expression profile and signaling activities of US28 in a number of cell types relevant to HCMV infection including smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells and cells derived from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors. The results indicate that US28 is expressed and exhibits constitutive agonist-independent signaling activity through PLC-β in all cell types tested. Moreover, while CCL5/RANTES and CX3CL1/Fractalkine both promote US28-dependent Ca(++) release in smooth muscle cells, this agonist-dependent effect appears to be cell-specific as we fail to detect US28 driven Ca(++) release in the GBM cells. We have also investigated the effects of US28 on signaling via endogenous GPCRs including those in the LPA receptor family. Our data indicate that US28 can enhance signaling via endogenous LPA receptors. Taken together, our results indicate that US28 induces a variety of signaling events in all cell types tested suggesting that US28 signaling likely plays a significant role during HCMV infection and dissemination in vivo.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e50524. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common congenital infection. HCMV strains display genetic variability in different regions. Distribution of HCMV genotypes in the population of congenitally infected newborns from Central Poland and viral load in newborns' blood is described and discussed. HCMV isolates were analysed by sequencing at three sites on the genome: the UL144 tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα)-like receptor gene, the US28 beta-chemokine receptor gene and the UL55 envelope glycoprotein B (gB) gene. The newborns' blood was examined for HCMV DNA with a nested (UL144, UL55) or heminested (US28) polymerase chain reaction, and the genotypes were determined by sequence analysis. HCMV DNA was detectable in 25 out of 55 examined newborns born by HCMV-infected mothers (45.5%). The blood viral load in mother-infant pairs was determined. Most of the newborns had identical virus genotype, gB2 (96%), UL144 B1 (88%) and US28 A2 (84%). These genotypes were detected in all newborns with asymptomatic congenital infection. The occurrence of UL144 B1 or US28 A2 genotypes in the babies examined was significant in comparison to other genotypes (p=0.0002 and p=0.040 respectively). There was no association between specific gB subtypes in all patients groups (p=0.463). There was no correlation between HCMV genotypes and the outcome.European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 11/2011; 31(7):1335-45. · 3.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mouse cytomegalovirus chemokine receptor homologue (CKR), M33, is required for salivary gland tropism and efficient reactivation from latency, phenotypes partially rescued by the human cytomegalovirus CKR, US28. Herein, we demonstrate that complementation of salivary gland tropism is mediated predominantly by G protein-dependent signaling conserved with that of M33; in contrast, both G protein-dependent and -independent pathways contribute to the latency phenotypes. A novel M33-dependent replication phenotype in cultured bone marrow macrophages is also described.Journal of Virology 01/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor