CC and CX3C chemokines differentially interact with the N terminus of the human cytomegalovirus-encoded US28 receptor.
ABSTRACT Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the causative agent of life-threatening systemic diseases in immunocompromised patients as well as a risk factor for vascular pathologies, like atherosclerosis, in immunocompetent individuals. HCMV encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), referred to as US28, that displays homology to the human chemokine receptor CCR1 and binds several chemokines of the CC family as well as the CX3C chemokine fractalkine with high affinity. Most importantly, following HCMV infection, US28 activates several intracellular pathways, either constitutively or in a chemokine-dependent manner. In this study, our goal was to understand the molecular interactions between chemokines and the HCMV-encoded US28 receptor. To achieve this goal, a double approach has been used, consisting in the analysis of both receptor and ligand mutants. This approach has led us to identify several amino acids located in the N terminus of US28 that differentially contribute to the high affinity binding of CC versus CX3C chemokines. Additionally, our results highlight the importance of secondary modifications occurring at US28, such as sulfation, for ligand recognition. Finally, the effects of chemokine dimerization and interaction with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on chemokine binding and activation of US28 were investigated as well using CCL4 as model ligand. In line with the two-state model describing chemokine/receptor interaction, we show that an aromatic residue in the N-loop region of CCL4 promotes tight binding to US28, whereas receptor activation depends on the presence of the N terminus of CCL4, as shown previously for CCR5.
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ABSTRACT: A systematic quantitative analysis of temporal changes in host and viral proteins throughout the course of a productive infection could provide dynamic insights into virus-host interaction. We developed a proteomic technique called "quantitative temporal viromics" (QTV), which employs multiplexed tandem-mass-tag-based mass spectrometry. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is not only an important pathogen but a paradigm of viral immune evasion. QTV detailed how HCMV orchestrates the expression of >8,000 cellular proteins, including 1,200 cell-surface proteins to manipulate signaling pathways and counterintrinsic, innate, and adaptive immune defenses. QTV predicted natural killer and T cell ligands, as well as 29 viral proteins present at the cell surface, potential therapeutic targets. Temporal profiles of >80% of HCMV canonical genes and 14 noncanonical HCMV open reading frames were defined. QTV is a powerful method that can yield important insights into viral infection and is applicable to any virus with a robust in vitro model. PAPERCLIP:Cell. 06/2014; 157(6):1460-1472.
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ABSTRACT: Our study on the highly charged N-terminal peptide of the human chemokine receptor CXCR3 by spectroscopic methods in solution and by means ofmolecular dynamics simulations showed that the charge content modulates the intrinsic structural preference of its flexible backbone. Collectively, our findings suggest that the structural organization of a protein should be seen as a part of a continuum in which the ratio between electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions and the intrinsic flexibility are important properties used to optimize the folding. When this ratio changes and the structure is intrinsically flexible, the structural organization of the system moves along the continuum of the possible conformational states. By all this combined information, one can describe the structure of CXCR3(1–48) as an ensemble of conformations. In fact, the peptide shows stretches of negative charges embedded in a flexible sequence which can be used to maximize promiscuous interactions relevant to molecular recognition but globally the peptide appears as a poly-structured globule-like ensemble that is dynamically stabilized by H-bonds. We have approached the study of the most populated ensembles with subset selection to explain our experimental data also by evidencing that the changes into the fraction of charged residues discriminate between dynamically poly-structured states, conceivably because of small free energy barriers existing between the different conformations of CXCR3(1–48). Therefore, the overlap of a highly flexible backbone, negatively charged residues and sites which can be modified by post-translational modifications represent the structural organization that controls the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological functions carried out by CXCR3(1–48).Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Proteins & Proteomics 08/2014; 1844(10):1868–1880. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biased signaling or functional selectivity occurs when a 7TM-receptor preferentially activates one of several available pathways. It can be divided into three distinct forms: ligand bias, receptor bias, and tissue or cell bias, where it is mediated by different ligands (on the same receptor), different receptors (with the same ligand), or different tissues or cells (for the same ligand-receptor pair). Most often biased signaling is differentiated into G protein-dependent and β-arrestin-dependent signaling. Yet, it may also cover signaling differences within these groups. Moreover, it may not be absolute, i.e., full versus no activation. Here we discuss biased signaling in the chemokine system, including the structural basis for biased signaling in chemokine receptors, as well as in class A 7TM receptors in general. This includes overall helical movements and the contributions of micro-switches based on recently published 7TM crystals and molecular dynamics studies. All three forms of biased signaling are abundant in the chemokine system. This challenges our understanding of "classic" redundancy inevitably ascribed to this system, where multiple chemokines bind to the same receptor and where a single chemokine may bind to several receptors - in both cases with the same functional outcome. The ubiquitous biased signaling confers a hitherto unknown specificity to the chemokine system with a complex interaction pattern that is better described as promiscuous with context-defined roles and different functional outcomes in a ligand-, receptor-, or cell/tissue-defined manner. As the low number of successful drug development plans implies, there are great difficulties in targeting chemokine receptors; in particular with regard to receptor antagonists as anti-inflammatory drugs. Un-defined and putative non-selective targeting of the complete cellular signaling system could be the underlying cause of lack of success. Therefore, biased ligands could be the solution.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2014; 5:277.