Double depression in an Australian population

Dept. of Psychiatry, University of Adelaide, The Adelaide Clinic, 33 Park Terrace, Gilberton, South Australia 5081.
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 2.54). 12/2004; 39(11):921-6. DOI: 10.1007/s00127-004-0832-7
Source: PubMed


Double depression, or dysthymia with superimposed major depression, is a major public health issue that imposes considerable burden on the community. Double depression and its associated morbidity have not previously been delineated in an Australian population.
A random and representative sample of the South Australian population was assessed by trained interviewers. The mood module of the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD), the Short-Form Health Status Questionnaire (SF-36), and Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) instruments were administered, and data related to treatment use and role functioning were collated.
Double depression was present in 2.2% of the population. This group reported high levels of treatment-seeking behaviour with 90% seeking treatment in the last month and 42.4 % taking antidepressants. They also had a highly significantly poorer quality of life than did others in the community.
The 2.2% of the population with double depression reported high use of services with poor functioning and health-related quality of life. More effective intervention strategies are required.

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    • "The findings of the current systematic review show that where males and females were compared, generally, women are more likely to experience depression compared to men [10,34,35,48]. However, some studies did not concur, for example Kikkinen et al. [49] found no significant differences in prevalence rates between men and women living in rural areas, suggesting that rural males and females faced similar levels of risk (overall prevalence of 31%). "
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of depression among Australian women. This systematic review of depression among women in Australia, the largest identified to date, highlights the prevalence and correlates of depression across the life span. The report adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement (PRISMA). Six health related databases were selected: Medline, PsychInfo, SCOPUS, Cinhal, Informit and Cochrane Systematic Reviews. 1,888 initial articles were found, and 111 articles were considered relevant for review. Prevalence rates of depression among women ranged from 2.6% to 43.9%. Higher rates were reported for younger women, or specific population groups. Most significant correlates included, age, adverse life events, tobacco use, sole motherhood, and previous mental health problems. Limitations include the scope of the investigation's aims and inclusion criteria, and the failure to identify gender specific data in most studies. Publication bias was likely, given that only papers reported (or translated) in English were included. Despite the breadth of information available, there were noticeable gaps in the literature. Some studies reported on affective disorders, but did not specifically report on depression, it is concluded that each mental illness warrants separate investigation. It was also common for studies to report a total prevalence rate without separating gender. This report recommends that it is vital to separate male and female data. The report concludes that more research is needed among mid-age women, Indigenous women, non-heterosexual women and Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) women.
    BMC Research Notes 10/2013; 6(1):424. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-6-424
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    • "This study investigated the extent to which AA with MDD, dysthymia, double depression and no depression could be distinguished from each other in terms of disability, and if comorbidities explained differences in disability. AA who endorsed double depression reported similar disability with AA who endorsed MDD, which contradicts the literature (Hellerstein et al., 2010; Rhebergen et al., 2009; Goldney and Fisher, 2004 "
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have examined differences in disability and comorbity among major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymia, and double depression in African-Americans (AA). A secondary analysis was performed on AA in the National Survey of American Life. Interviews occurred 2001-2003. A four stage national area probability sampling was performed. DSM-IV-TR diagnoses were obtained with a modified version of the World Health Organization's expanded version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Disability was measured by interview with the World Health Organization's Disability Assessment Schedule II. Compared to non-depressed AA, AA endorsing MDD (t=19.0, p=0.0001) and double depression (t=18.7, p=0.0001) reported more global disability; AA endorsing MDD (t=8.5, p=0.0063) reported more disability in the getting around domain; AA endorsing MDD (t=19.1, p=0.0001) and double depression (t=12.1, p=0.0014) reported more disability in the life activities domain. AA who endorsed double depression reported similar disability and comorbidities with AA who endorsed MDD. Few AA endorsed dysthymia. This was a cross-sectional study subject to recall bias. The NSAL did not measure minor depression. The current study supports the idea of deleting distinct chronic subtypes of depression and consolidating them into a single category termed chronic depression.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 06/2013; 150(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.05.089 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    • "This could mean that some participants have had high post-traumatic symptom levels and low HRQoL both before and throughout the study. Depression, for example, can have a major negative impact on HRQoL (Goldney & Fisher 2004). "
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    Journal of Advanced Nursing 07/2011; 68(2):402-13. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05752.x · 1.74 Impact Factor
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