The mGluR5 antagonist 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl)pyridine decreases ethanol consumption via a protein kinase C epsilon-dependent mechanism

Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, Department of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco, 5858 Horton St., Suite 200, Emeryville, CA 94608, USA.
Molecular Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 4.12). 03/2005; 67(2):349-55. DOI: 10.1124/mol.104.003319
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Glutamatergic neurotransmission plays a critical role in addictive behaviors, and recent evidence indicates that genetic or pharmacological inactivation of the type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5) reduces the self-administration of cocaine, nicotine, and alcohol. Because mGluR5 is coupled to activation of protein kinase C (PKC), and targeted deletion of the epsilon isoform (PKCepsilon) in mice reduces ethanol self-administration, we investigated whether there is a functional link between mGluR5 and PKCepsilon. Here, we show that acute administration of the mGluR5 agonist (R,S)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine to mice increases phosphorylation of PKCepsilon in its activation loop (T566) as well as in its C-terminal region (S729). Increases in phospho-PKCepsilon are dependent not only on mGluR5 stimulation but also on phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K). In addition, the selective mGluR5 antagonist 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) reduced basal levels of phosphorylation of PKCepsilon at S729. We also show that MPEP dose dependently reduced ethanol consumption in wild-type but not in PKCepsilon-null mice, suggesting that PKCepsilon is an important signaling target for modulation of ethanol consumption by mGluR5 antagonists. Radioligand binding experiments using [(3)H]MPEP revealed that these genotypic differences in response to MPEP were not a result of altered mGluR5 levels or binding in PKCepsilon-null mice. Our data indicate that mGluR5 is coupled to PKCepsilon via a PI3K-dependent pathway and that PKCepsilon is required for the ability of the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP to reduce ethanol consumption.

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    Frontiers in Neuroscience 07/2014; 8:200. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2014.00200
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    ABSTRACT: Historically, brain catecholamine systems have been the primary focus of studies examining the neural substrates of drug addiction. In the past two decades, however, a wealth of evidence has accumulated indicating a pivotal role for glutamatergic neurotransmission in mediating addictive behaviors as well as long-term neuroplasticity associated with chronic drug use. As a result, there has been increased interest in developing glutamate-based therapies for the treatment of addictive disorders. Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are classified into subcategories designated as Group I (mGlu1 and mGlu5), Group II (mGlu2 and mGlu3), and Group III (mGlu4, mGlu6, mGlu7, and mGlu8), and have received a great deal of attention due to their mediation of slower modulatory excitatory neurotransmission. Pharmacological ligands targeting these receptors have demonstrated reduced incidences of excitotoxicity or severe adverse side effects as compared to those targeting ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors. Behavioral genetic and pharmacological studies have explored the role of individual mGlu receptor subtypes in regulating various addiction-related behaviours and several mGlu receptor ligands have been the subject of clinical testing for other medical conditions.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Binge ethanol (EtOH) intake during adolescence leads to an array of behavioral and cognitive consequences including elevated intake of EtOH during adulthood, with female mice showing greater susceptibility than males. Administration of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) antagonist 3-((2-Methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP) has been shown to reduce EtOH self-administration in adult male mice, but little is known about its effect on female and adolescent mice.MethodsMTEP (0, 10, 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was repeatedly administered to female and male, adult and adolescent C57BL/6J mice during binge sessions using the scheduled high alcohol consumption paradigm. Next, we assessed whether MTEP administration during binge altered the subsequent 24-hour EtOH intake following a period of abstinence. Finally, we investigated whether MTEP administration during binge followed by an abstinence period altered mRNA of glutamatergic genes within the nucleus accumbens of female mice.ResultsMTEP significantly decreased binge EtOH intake in all mice, but only female mice exhibited altered subsequent 24-hour EtOH intake. Interestingly, the alteration in subsequent EtOH intake in female animals was age dependent, with adolescent exposure to MTEP during binge decreasing 24-hour intake and adult exposure to MTEP during binge increasing 24-hour intake. Finally, while there were no effects of MTEP pretreatment on the genes examined, there was a robust age effect found during analysis of mGluR1 (Grm1), mGluR5 (Grm5), the NR2A subunit of the NMDA receptor (Grin2a), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (Pik3r1), mammalian target of rapamycin (Mtor), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Mapk1) mRNA, with adolescent female animals having lower expression than their adult counterparts.Conclusions Collectively, the present findings add to existing evidence implicating the contribution of long-term effects of adolescent binge drinking to enhance alcohol abuse in adulthood, while suggesting that mGluR5 antagonism may not be the best pharmacotherapy to treat binge alcohol consumption in female and adolescent animals.
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