Systemic safety of high-dose antibiotic-loaded cement spacers after resection of an infected total knee arthroplasty
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to assess the systemic safety and potential adverse effects of using a high-dose antibiotic-impregnated cement spacer after resection arthroplasty of an infected total knee replacement. Between October 2000 and December 2002, 36 knees (34 patients) had a resection arthroplasty of an infected total knee prosthesis with placement of a high-dose antibiotic impregnated cement spacer. There were 24 men and 10 women with a mean age of 66.5 years (range, 48-84 years). All spacers placed contained an average of 3.4 batches of cement with an average total dose of 10.5 g of vancomycin (range, 3-16 g) and 12.5 g of gentamicin (range, 3.6-19.2 g). All patients were followed up post-operatively until reimplantation for evidence of renal failure. The preoperative creatinine ranged from 0.7 to 1.8 mg/dL. All patients were concomitantly treated with 6 weeks of intravenous organism-specific antibiotics. One patient with normal preoperative renal function (Cr 0.7 mg/dL) had a perioperative 1-day transient rise in serum creatinine (1.7 mg/dL) postoperatively that subsequently normalized. No patients showed any clinical evidence of acute renal insufficiency, failure, or other systemic side effects of the antibiotics. Treatment of patients with an infected total knee arthroplasty with high-dose vancomycin and gentamicin antibiotic spacers seems to be clinically safe.
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ABSTRACT: Antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) is commonly used for antibiotic delivery during total joint arthroplasty (TJA) for prevention or treatment of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). ALBC is commonly used in two-stage exchange arthroplasty with static and dynamic spacers, beads, rods, and other custom spacers. The use of commercially available or hand-made ALBC for primary and revision TJA to prevent infection has also been studied. Commonly used antibiotics include gentamicin, tobramycin, and vancomycin powder, and these antibiotics can be used alone or in combination, depending on the organism present. ALBC can be prepared by hand mixing to increase porosity and improve antibiotic elution or by vacuum-mixing to improve tensile fatigue strength. Vacuum-mixed cement is predominantly used in primary TJA, whereas hand-mixed cement is often used in two-stage exchange arthroplasty for shaping spacers and beads. Inadequate strength of ALBC spacers can result in mechanical failure, including fracture or dislocation of spacers. Additionally, studies have demonstrated that the use of antibiotics in cement, especially aminoglycosides like gentamicin and tobramycin that can elute into the bloodstream, may result in acute renal failure. Using antibiotics in ALBC can also theoretically increase antibiotic resistance and the likelihood of obtaining a negative culture if subsequent aspirations are performed. Overall, ALBC is an effective medical implant tool that can be used for treating and preventing PJI.Journal of Long-Term Effects of Medical Implants 01/2014; 24(2-3):89-97. DOI:10.1615/JLongTermEffMedImplants.2013010238
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ABSTRACT: With increasing prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in patients undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty, some have advocated a dual-antibiotic regimen including vancomycin as prophylaxis against surgical site infections. However, routine administration of vancomycin may result in impaired renal functions in susceptible patients. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients receiving antibiotic prophylaxis with cefazolin and vancomycin have a higher risk of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) compared with patients receiving cefazolin alone before elective primary hip and knee arthroplasty. We also aimed to compare severity and recovery of AKI in these two cohorts and to determine independent risk factors for AKI. We retrospectively evaluated a series of 1828 patients undergoing primary hip and knee arthroplasty over a 2-year period who received either cefazolin (n = 500) or cefazolin and vancomycin (n = 1328) as perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis. During the study period, a perceived high prevalence of MRSA infections at our institution led some surgeons to add vancomycin to the prophylactic antibiotic regimen. The patient characteristics, case mix, and preoperative renal function and baseline creatinine clearance were similar between the two groups. We defined AKI according to the published Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria, and the risk of AKI in both groups was compared. We also compared the proportions of patients by AKIN severity stage and assessed recovery as defined by creatinine levels showing kidney function reaching 50% baseline. The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, preoperative chronic kidney disease, intraoperative fluid requirements, and estimated blood loss were recorded. We analyzed the data using a multivariate logistic regression model to identify potential independent risk factors, including dual antibiotic therapy. Patients receiving dual antibiotics were more likely to develop AKI compared with those receiving cefazolin alone (13% versus 8%, p = 0.002). Dual-antibiotic prophylaxis also was associated with greater severity; patients in the dual antibiotic group had higher rates of Grade II and III acute kidney injury (3% versus 0%, p = 0.003). There was no difference in the rate of return to baseline renal function (2 ± 1.4 days versus 3 ± 3.4 days; mean difference, 0.5 days; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.2 to 1.2 days; p = 0.155). Controlling for confounding variables, dual antibiotic prophylaxis (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.82; 95% CI, 1.25-2.64; p = 0.002), ASA class (adjusted OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.24-2.17; p = 0.001), and preoperative kidney disease (adjusted OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.30-2.52; p = 0.001) were independent risk factors for AKI after primary total joint arthroplasty. Without a clear advantage in reducing surgical site infections, the utility and safety of routine addition of vancomycin to the prophylactic regimen in all patients undergoing primary hip and knee arthroplasty should be avoided. Further prospective studies should look at the efficacy of preoperative MRSA screening, decolonization, and selective use of vancomycin in high-risk patients. Level III, therapeutic study.Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11999-014-4062-3 · 2.88 Impact Factor
Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia 09/2013; 48(5):389-396. DOI:10.1016/j.rbo.2013.01.003