Mechanoreceptor evaluation of hip joint capsule and ligamentum capitis femoris in developmental hip dysplasia: a preliminary study.
ABSTRACT We aimed to determine if there are mechanoreceptors in the hip joint capsule and ligamentum capitis femoris (LCF) of patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). We took capsule and LCF biopsies from 20 hips of 20 patients who were operated on because of DDH. The mean age was 10.2 months (range 6-20 months) at the time of surgery. There were 12 girls and eight boys. Teratologic and secondary hip dislocations were not included in this study. Full thickness, 0.5 x 0.5 cm anterior capsule and LCF portions were taken for biopsy specimen. Specimens were stained with hemotoxylin eosin and examined immunohistochemically using monoclonal antibody against S-100 protein. In both analyses no mechanoreceptor was found in any samples of capsule or LCF. In this preliminary study we could not find mechanoreceptors in the local anterior joint capsule and LCF of the hip in children with DDH. We think that additional studies are necessary in order to understand the mechanoreceptor characteristics of the hip joint in children not only with DDH but also in children with healthy hips.
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ABSTRACT: Mechanoreceptors have been extensively studied in different joints and distinct signals that convey proprioceptive information to the cortex. Several clinical reports have established a link between the number of mechanoreceptors and a deficient proprioceptive system; however, little or no literature suggest concentration of mechanoreceptors might be affected by hip arthrosis. The purpose of this study is first to determine the existence of mechanoreceptors and free nerve endings in the hip joint and to distinguish between their conditions: those with arthrosis and without arthrosis. Samples of 45 male hips were analyzed: 30 taken from patients with arthrosis that were submitted to total arthroplasty and 15 taken from male cadavers without arthrosis. The patients' ages ranged from 38 to75 years (average 56.5) and the cadavers' ages ranged from 21 to 50 years (average 35.5). The capsule, labrum, and femoral head ligament tissues were obtained during the arthroplasty procedure from 30 patients with arthrosis and from 15 male cadavers. The tissue was cut into fragments of around 3 mm. Each fragment was then immediately stained with gold chloride 1% solution and divided into sections of 6 μm thickness. The Mann-Whitney test was used for two groups and the ANOVA, Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis tests for more than two groups. Results show the mechanoreceptors (Pacini, Ruffini and Golgi corpuscles) and free nerve endings are present in the capsule, femoral head ligament, and labrum of the hip joint. When all the densities of the nerve endings were examined with regard to those with arthrosis and those without arthrosis, the mechanoreceptors of cadavers without arthrosis were found to be more pronounced and an increase in free nerve endings could be observed (p = 0.0082). Further studies, especially electrophysiological studies, need to be carried out to clarify the functions of the mechanoreceptors in the joints.Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research 11/2011; 6:58.