Treatment of cocaine dependence and depression.
ABSTRACT In common with all other classes of substance use disorders, cocaine dependence has been shown to be strongly associated with depression by community and clinical surveys. Diagnosing depression in cocaine abusers can be challenging because it is difficult to distinguish transient symptoms caused by cocaine from enduring depression syndromes. Nonetheless, both "substance-induced" and "independent" depression syndromes require clinical attention, especially when symptoms have been persistent and severe before entering treatment. Use of antidepressant medications for combined cocaine dependence and depression is supported by a preponderance of evidence from 4 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that prospectively targeted both depression and cocaine dependence and 7 RCTs in which a post hoc analyses demonstrated efficacy in the subgroup of cocaine abusers with comorbid depression. Notably, most negative studies have evaluated SSRIs while positive studies have used agents such as desipramine or buproprion. A substantial clinical trials literature supports the efficacy of behavioral treatments for general populations of cocaine abusers and of patients with depression but few studies have addressed patients with both disorders. Treatment development and research are needed on models of care that truly integrate strategies for addressing both cocaine use and depression. Recent advances have paved the way for a new generation of research. These include validation of efficacious cocaine treatments, improved diagnostic methods, organization of the Clinical Trials Network and development of guidelines for managing methodological challenges posed by high rates of current medication use and polysubstance abuse in treatment entering cocaine abusers.
SourceAvailable from: Francisco Javier Pavon-Moron[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cocaine addiction is a growing health problem and among its complications highlights the high prevalence of mental disorders co-occurring with abuse and dependence. This psychopathological comorbidity varies according to the time of consumption and the age of the patient. Early detection of psychopathological disorders associated with drug consumption is necessary to optimize health care and to improve the prognosis. The main aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of psychopathological comorbidity in a population of subjects seeking outpatient treatment for cocaine use. We recruited 110 subjects using cocaine by nasal insufflations evaluated with the PRISM (Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders), a semi-structured diagnostic interview that differentiates primary mental disorders from those induced by the drug. This population presented 86.4% male and had a mean age of 36.5. They displayed a pathological use of cocaine of 7 years and the presence of psychopathology was associated with a higher number of DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders- IV-TR) criteria for substance dependence. The lifetime prevalence of some psychopathological comorbidity was 61.8%, highlighting mood disorders (34.5%), followed by anxiety disorders (22.7%) and psychotic disorders (15.5%). About 20% showed antisocial personality disorder and 21% borderline personality disorder. From among mood and psychotic disorders, the induced disorders were more frequent, while the primary disorders were more prevalent in anxiety. Key words: comorbidity, psychopathology, cocaine, abuse, dependence.Adicciones 01/2014; 26(1):15-26. · 1.17 Impact Factor
Mental Health and Substance Use dual diagnosis 11/2013; 7(4):391-406. DOI:10.1080/17523281.2013.841748
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ABSTRACT: Background Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remains crucial in successfully treating HIV. While active substance use and depression are both associated with each other and with HAART nonadherence, little is known about their interaction. An understanding of the interaction of substance use and depressive symptoms on HAART adherence can inform adherence-enhancing interventions as well as interventions that target substance use and depression. Purpose We tested an interaction between substance use and depression on HAART adherence among methadone maintenance patients. Method We assessed substance use, depressive symptoms, and HAART adherence among 100 HIV-infected individuals receiving methadone maintenance in The Bronx, New York. Regressions were performed on adherence using an interaction term comprised of substance use and depressive symptoms. MODPROBE was used to assess significant interactions. Results Any use of illicit substances was associated with HAART nonadherence (p = 0.043). Cannabis was the single substance of abuse most strongly associated with nonadherence (p = 0.003). Depressive symptoms approached significance in bivariate analysis (p = 0.066). In regression analysis, a significant interaction was found between illicit substance use and depressive symptoms [OR (95 % CI) 1.23 (1.06-1.44), p = 0.007], where illicit substance use was associated with nonadherence in individuals with lower depressive symptoms, but not among those with depressive symptoms at higher levels. No individual substances interacted with depressive symptoms on adherence. Conclusion Though substance use and depressive symptoms interacted on HAART adherence, they did not have a synergistic effect. Continued substance use (51 % of the sample) suggests an unmet need for treatment, even in methadone maintenance. Further examinations of the interplay of substance use and depression on HAART adherence are warranted.International Journal of Behavioral Medicine 08/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12529-014-9429-z · 2.63 Impact Factor