Prior PCB exposure suppresses hypoxia-induced up-regulation of glycolytic enzymes in Fundulus heteroclitus
ABSTRACT Increased activity of the glycolytic enzymes is a conserved feature of the cellular response to hypoxia, and may represent a protective mechanism by which cells can survive short-term hypoxic exposure. Gene induction by hypoxia involves a dimer of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1 alpha and the nuclear cofactor HIF-1 beta, also called the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), which is also involved in induction of genes in response to aryl hydrocarbon exposure. To assess the possibility of interaction between these pathways, we examined changes in the activity of the glycolytic enzymes in response to hypoxia and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in the liver of a teleost fish, Fundulus heteroclitus. After 3 days of hypoxic exposure (dissolved oxygen levels between 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L), there were significant increases in the activity of six glycolytic enzymes (PGI, ALD, TPI, PGK, PGM and LDH). In contrast, intraperitoneal injection of 1 microg/g body weight of PCB #77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) caused significant decreases in glycolytic enzyme activity after 7 days of exposure. When fish were injected with PCB #77 and then (4 days later) exposed to hypoxia for 3 days as before, we observed no induction of the glycolytic enzymes. This suggests that there is an antagonistic interaction between exposure to PCBs and hypoxia in F. heteroclitus. Prior PCB exposure could make these fish less tolerant of environmental hypoxia.
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ABSTRACT: Aerobic organisms strongly depend on the availability of oxygen for respiration and countless other metabolic processes to maintain cellular homeostasis. Under certain conditions, the amount of available oxygen can be limited. To support survival in environments with limited oxygen supply, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) reprogram vital components of cellular metabolism. HIF-1α is an important mediator of acute and adaptive responses to hypoxic stress. Interestingly, the heterodimeric partner required by HIF-1α to function as transcription factor, known as ARNT, is also an essential part of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transcription factor complex. Thus, via ARNT a crosstalk exists between these two pathways that might affect HIF-1α-mediated processes. In this study we sought to assess the effect of the AhR agonist PCB 126 on HIF-1α activity as well as on HIF-1α-regulated targets involved in cellular metabolism in human HepG2 cells. Our results show that PCB 126 reduced HIF-1α localization to the nucleus. Furthermore, in an in vivo setting, rats exposed to parenteral PCB 126 also displayed reduced hepatocyte nuclear localization of HIF-1α. Additionally, HepG2 cells exposed to PCB 126 displayed reduced hypoxia-regulated HRE-luciferase reporter gene expression as well as a reduction in glucose consumption in conditions of hypoxia. In summary, this study reveals that HIF-1α-regulated cellular metabolic processes are negatively affected by PCB 126 which might ultimately affect adaptive responses and cell survival in hypoxic environments.Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie 06/2014; 66(8). DOI:10.1016/j.etp.2014.05.005 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aquatic hypoxia is a seasonal condition in some coastal and continental wetlands where co-exposure with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution may be detrimental to the biota. In the present study, adult tilapia, an euryoxic fish of high economic importance, were intraperitoneally injected with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) (20mgkg(-1)) and then exposed to graded hypoxia to assess combined effects on some detoxification and fitness parameters. Seventy-two hours after a stepped decrease in dissolved oxygen (<2mgL(-1)), BaP treatment resulted in a significant diminution on the biliary BaP concentration (70% of normoxic group) and an increase in blood glucose levels (2.17-fold compared with normoxic group). These effects returned to control values in the following 48h of hypoxia exposure. BaP-induced CYP1A mRNA levels were unaffected by hypoxia, suggesting that reduced bile BaP concentration may be related with effects on protein amount or enzyme activities. LDH mRNA levels, blood lactate and hematocrit remained without change, suggesting no extreme detrimental effects for tilapia in the short-term of the BaP-hypoxia challenge. Our results indicate that BaP treatment and hypoxia targeted glucose metabolism and biliary BaP elimination, probably by favoring the storage of BaP in tilapia tissues.Chemosphere 04/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.03.034 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The goal of the current study was to generate a comprehensive, multi-tissue perspective of the effects of chronic hypoxic exposure on carbohydrate metabolism in the Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis. Fish were held at approximately 1.3 mg l(-1) dissolved oxygen (approximately 3.6 kPa) for 4 weeks, after which maximal activities were measured for all glycolytic enzymes in four tissues (white skeletal muscle, liver, heart and brain), as well as for enzymes of glycogen metabolism (in muscle and liver) and gluconeogenesis (in liver). The specific activities of enzymes of glycolysis and glycogen metabolism were strongly suppressed by hypoxia in white skeletal muscle, which may reflect decreased energy demand in this tissue during chronic hypoxia. In contrast, several enzyme specific activities were higher in liver tissue after hypoxic exposure, suggesting increased capacity for carbohydrate metabolism. Hypoxic exposure affected fewer enzymes in heart and brain than in skeletal muscle and liver, and the changes were smaller in magnitude, perhaps due to preferential perfusion of heart and brain during hypoxia. The specific activities of some gluconeogenic enzymes increased in liver during long-term hypoxic exposure, which may be coupled to increased protein catabolism in skeletal muscle. These results demonstrate that when intact fish are subjected to prolonged hypoxia, enzyme activities respond in a tissue-specific fashion reflecting the balance of energetic demands, metabolic role and oxygen supply of particular tissues. Furthermore, within glycolysis, the effects of hypoxia varied among enzymes, rather than being uniformly distributed among pathway enzymes.Journal of Experimental Biology 11/2006; 209(Pt 19):3851-61. DOI:10.1242/jeb.02437 · 3.00 Impact Factor