The cationic charges on Arg(347), Arg(358) and Arg(449) of human cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17) are essential for the enzyme's cytochrome b(5)-dependent acyl-carbon cleavage activities
Department of Chemistry, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, England, United KingdomThe Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 3.63). 11/2004; 92(3):119-30. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2004.07.005
CYP17 (17alpha-hydroxylase-17,20-lyase; also P450c17 or P450(17alpha)) catalyses the17alpha-hydroxylation of progestogens and the subsequent acyl-carbon cleavage of the 17alpha-hydroxylated products (lyase activity) in the biosynthesis of androgens. The enzyme also catalyses another type of acyl-carbon cleavage (direct cleavage activity) in which the 17alpha-hydroxylation reaction is by-passed. Human CYP17 is heavily dependent on the presence of the membrane form of cytochrome b(5) for both its lyase and direct cleavage activities. In the present study it was found that substitution of human CYP17 amino acids, Arg(347), Arg(358) and Arg(449), with non-cationic residues, yielded variants that were impaired in the two acyl-carbon bond cleavage activities, quantitatively to the same extent and these were reduced to between 3 and 4% of the wild-type protein. When the arginines were replaced by lysines, the sensitivity to cytochrome b(5) was restored and the acyl-carbon cleavage activities were recovered. All of the human mutant CYP17 proteins displayed wild-type hydroxylase activity, in the absence of cytochrome b(5). The results suggest that the bifurcated cationic charges at Arg(347), Arg(358) and Arg(449) make important contributions to the formation of catalytically competent CYP17.cytochrome b(5) complex. The results support our original proposal that the main role of cytochrome b(5) is to promote protein conformational changes which allow the iron-peroxo anion to form a tetrahedral adduct that fragments to produce the acyl-carbon cleavage products.
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ABSTRACT: The metabolism of pyrene to hydroxypyrene by CYP3A4 was investigated to determine the effect of cytochrome b5 (b5) on turnover kinetics. In the absence of b5, formation of hydroxypyrene in in vitro incubations showed a biphasic substrate-velocity curve where K(m1) and V(max1) were 1.3 microM and 0.5 pmol/min/pmol P450, respectively. The addition of testosterone to the incubation mixture completely abolished the second phase to yield a typical, hyperbolic curve, presumably through the disruption in the formation of a pi-pi stacked pyrene complex within the CYP3A4 active site. Finally, the addition of b5 yielded an increase hydroxypyrene formation that resulted in a sigmoidal substrate velocity curve. The V(max) was 15.7 pmol/min/pmol P450, the K(m) was 7.5 microM, and the Hill coefficient was greater than two. This demonstrated that b5 could directly induce positive cooperativity on CYP3A4 and that this biological factor needs to be carefully considered when included in in vitro P450 reactions.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 07/2005; 438(1):21-8. DOI:10.1016/j.abb.2005.02.027 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: CYP17 is a steroidogenic enzyme located in the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex and gonad tissues and which has dual functions - hydroxylation and as a lyase. The first activity gives hydroxylation of pregnenolone and progesterone at the C(17) position to generate 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, while the second enzymic activity cleaves the C(17)-C(20) bond of 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone to form dehydroepiandro-sterone and androstenedione respectively. The modulation of these two activities occurs through cytochrome b(5). Association of cytochrome b(5) and CYP17 is thought to be based primarily on electrostatic interactions in which the negatively charged residues pair up with positively charged residues on the proximal surface of the CYP17 molecule. Non-specific interactions of the hydrophobic membrane regions of cytochrome b(5) and CYP17 are also thought to play a crucial role in the association of these two haemoproteins. Although cytochrome b(5) is known to stimulate CYP activity by contributing the second electron in the catalytic cycle, in the case of CYP17, the mechanism of cleavage stimulation proceeds via an allosteric mode. It is hypothesised that cytochrome b(5) promotes the cleavage by aligning the iron-oxygen complex attack onto the C(20) rather than the C(17) atom of the steroid substrate molecule. Thus, further understanding of the mechanism of modulation by cytochrome b(5) of the hydroxylase and lyase activities should shed new insights on developing therapeutic targets in CYP17-linked biochemical processes such as adrenarche, polycystic ovary syndrome and prostate cancer.Journal of Endocrinology 12/2005; 187(2):267-74. DOI:10.1677/joe.1.06375 · 3.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human CYP27A1 is a mitochondrial cytochrome P450, which is principally found in the liver and plays important roles in the biological activation of vitamin D(3) and in the biosynthesis of bile acids. We have applied a systematic analysis of hydrogen bonding patterns in 11 prokaryotic and mammalian CYP crystal structures to construct a homology-based model of CYP27A1. Docking of vitamin D(3) structures into the active site of this model identified potential substrate contact residues in the F-helix, the beta-3 sheet, and the beta-5 sheet. Site-directed mutagenesis and expression in COS-1 cells confirmed that these positions affect enzymatic activity, in some cases shifting metabolism of 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(3) to favor 25- or 27-hydroxylation. The results suggest that conserved hydrophobic residues in the beta-5 hairpin help define the shape of the substrate binding cavity and that this structure interacts with Phe-248 in the F-helix. Mutations directed toward the beta-3a strand suggested a possible heme-binding interaction centered on Asn-403 and a structural role for substrate contact residues Thr-402 and Ser-404.Biophysical Journal 06/2006; 90(10):3389-409. DOI:10.1529/biophysj.105.069369 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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