Decreased cortical gray and cerebral white matter in male patients with familial bipolar I disorder.
ABSTRACT Previous MRI studies of bipolar disorder have failed to consistently demonstrate cortical gray or cerebral white matter tissue loss, as well as sulcal or ventricular enlargement. The inconsistencies are most likely due to the clinical and gender heterogeneity of the study populations as well as the different MRI acquisition and processing techniques. The objective of this study was to determine if there was a cortical gray matter and cerebral white matter deficit as well as sulcal and ventricular enlargement in a homogeneous sample of euthymic male patients with familial bipolar I disorder.
MRI tissue segmentation was utilized to obtain cortical gray matter, cerebral white matter, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and sulcal CSF volumes in 22 euthymic males with familial bipolar I disorder and 32 healthy male control subjects.
Relative to the controls, the familial bipolar I patients demonstrated: (1) significant reductions of both cortical gray matter and cerebral white matter volumes; and (2) significant increases in both sulcal and ventricular CSF volumes. In the bipolar group, there was a significant negative correlation between cortical gray matter volume and sulcal CSF volume.
Small sample size, retrospective interviews, possible medication effects.
These results provide evidence for significant cortical gray matter and cerebral white matter deficits and associated sulcal and ventricular enlargement in euthymic males with familial bipolar I disorder.
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ABSTRACT: The dynamics of flame-hole reignition were studied experimentally in a turbulent non-premixed CH4/H2/N2 jet flame at Red=22,800 (flame ‘DLR-B’ from the TNF workshop). Simultaneous measurements of the OH combustion radical and velocity field were performed using planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) at a sustained rate of 10kHz. The dynamics of the reignition process were tracked through time and two reignition mechanisms were identified. Particular care was taken to reduce the influence of out-of-plane motion on the analyzed events by simultaneously measuring the OH distribution in crossed planes. Flame-holes reignited due to both edge-flame propagation and turbulent transport of burning flame segments. However, the edge-flame propagation mechanism was dominant and accounted for over 90% of the flame-hole reignition rate on average. Furthermore, the presence of large scale turbulent structures adjacent to a flame-hole did not necessarily result in reignition due to turbulent transport. Instead, the edge-flames propagated around the perimeter of such structures, indicating intervening regions of well mixed gas. The range of measured edge-flame propagation speeds agreed well that of highly-preheated premixed flames, with a mode of approximately 4m/s and a mean of approximately 7m/s.Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 01/2011; 33(1):1663-1672. DOI:10.1016/j.proci.2010.06.134 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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