Increased peptidylarginine deiminase type II in hypoxic astrocytes.
ABSTRACT Peptidylarginine deiminase type II (PAD 2) is the primary enzyme responsible for conversion of protein bound arginine to citrulline in the central nervous system. Evidence suggests that glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), the main intermediate filament in astrocytes, is deiminated, but not much is known regarding factors that control this enzymatic reaction. The present study demonstrated that PAD 2 activity (as determined by Western blot analysis of citrullinated GFAP isoforms) was increased in human cultured astrocytes by hypoxic conditions. PAD 2 mRNA increased markedly during the first 2h of hypoxia, but using a single chain antibody against human PAD 2 produced from the ETH-2 phage library, it took approximately 8h of hypoxia to see marked increases in PAD 2 protein. Thus, this is the first report to demonstrate a measurable response in the amounts of PAD 2 mRNA, protein and activity in human astrocytes by prolonged hypoxic exposure.
Article: A tale of two citrullines--structural and functional aspects of myelin basic protein deimination in health and disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Myelin basic protein (MBP) binds to negatively charged lipids on the cytosolic surface of oligodendrocyte membranes and is responsible for adhesion of these surfaces in the multilayered myelin sheath. The pattern of extensive post-translational modifications of MBP is dynamic during normal central nervous system (CNS) development and during myelin degeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS), affecting its interactions with the myelin membranes and with other molecules. In particular, the degree of deimination (or citrullination) of MBP is correlated with the severity of MS, and may represent a primary defect that precedes neurodegeneration due to autoimmune attack. That the degree of MBP deimination is also high in early CNS development indicates that this modification plays major physiological roles in myelin assembly. In this review, we describe the structural and functional consequences of MBP deimination in healthy and diseased myelin.Neurochemical Research 03/2007; 32(2):137-58. · 2.24 Impact Factor
Article: Bacterial and human peptidylarginine deiminases: targets for inhibiting the autoimmune response in rheumatoid arthritis?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) convert arginine within a peptide (peptidylarginine) into peptidylcitrulline. Citrullination by human PADs is important in normal physiology and inflammation. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major pathogen in periodontitis, is the only prokaryote described to possess PAD. P. gingivalis infection may generate citrullinated peptides, which trigger anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies. In susceptible individuals, host protein citrullination by human PADs in the joint probably perpetuates antibody formation, paving the way for the development of chronic arthritis. Blockades of bacterial and human PADs may act as powerful novel therapies by inhibiting the generation of the antigens that trigger and sustain autoimmunity in rheumatoid arthritis.Arthritis research & therapy 01/2010; 12(3):209. · 4.27 Impact Factor