Cellular FLIP (long isoform) overexpression in T cells drives Th2 effector responses and promotes immunoregulation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
ABSTRACT Cellular FLIP (c-FLIP) is an endogenous inhibitor of death receptor-induced apoptosis through the caspase 8 pathway. It is an NF-kappaB-inducible protein thought to promote the survival of T cells upon activation, and its down-regulation has been implicated in activation-induced cell death. We have generated transgenic mice overexpressing human c-FLIP long form (c-FLIP(L)) specifically in T cells using the CD2 promoter (TgFLIP(L)). TgFLIP(L) mice exhibit increased IgG1 production upon stimulation by a T cell-dependent Ag and a markedly enhanced contact hypersensitivity response to allergen. In addition to showing augmented Th2-type responses, TgFLIP(L) mice are resistant to the development of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein 35-55 peptide-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a Th1-driven autoimmune disease. In vitro analyses revealed that T cells of TgFLIP(L) mice proliferate normally, but produce higher levels of IL-2 and show preferential maturation of Th2 cytokine-producing cells in response to antigenic stimulation. After adoptive transfer, these (Th2) cells protected wild-type recipient mice from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induction. Our results show that the constitutive overexpression of c-FLIP(L) in T cells is sufficient to drive Th2 polarization of effector T cell responses and indicate that it might function as a key regulator of Th cell differentiation.
Article: High resolution mapping of chromosomal regions controlling resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infections in an advanced intercross line of mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to the gastrointestinal parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus was achieved on F(6)/F(7) offspring (1076 mice) from resistant (SWR) and susceptible (CBA) mouse strains by selective genotyping (top and bottom 20% selected on total worm count in week 6). Fecal egg counts were recorded at weeks 2, 4, and 6, and the average was also analyzed. Blood packed cell volume in weeks 3 and 6 and five immunological traits (mucosal mast cell protease 1, granuloma score, IgG1 against adult worm, IgG1, and IgE to L4 antigen) were also recorded. On Chromosome 1 single-trait analyses identified a QTL with effects on eight traits located at about 24 cM on the F(2) mouse genome database (MGD) linkage map, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 20-32 cM established from a multitrait analysis. On Chromosome 17 a QTL with effects on nine traits was located at about 18 cM on the MGD map (CI 17.9-18.4 cM). Strong candidate genes for the QTL position on Chromosome 1 include genes known to be involved in regulating immune responses and on Chromosome 17 genes within the MHC, notably the Class II molecules and tumor necrosis factor.Mammalian Genome 07/2006; 17(6):584-97. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: FLIP is an antiapoptotic protein that has been demonstrated to play an important role in inflammation, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. However, it is not known whether increased expression of FLIP (FLICE inhibitory protein) in thyrocytes would alter the development of the thyroid and/or pathogenesis of thyroiditis. To examine the effects of overexpression of this antiapoptotic molecule on the thyroid, we have developed transgenic mouse lines that specifically express FLIP in thyrocytes. A DNA construct designed with an in-frame coding sequence for the E8 protein, a viral FLIP, was put under the control of the thyroglobulin (Tg) promoter (the Tg-FLIP transgene). In 8 of 12 resultant transgenic mouse lines, FLIP expression in thyrocytes driven by the Tg promoter was documented, and confirmed at RNA and protein levels. These Tg-FLIP transgenic mice were monitored for 1 year. Throughout the entire observation period, the transgenic mice remained alive and healthy without evidence of thyroid dysfunction. Adult mice were able to breed. Histologic examination of thyroids obtained at various time points did not reveal significant differences between transgenic mice and their control littermates. Therefore, transgenic mice with thyrocyte-specific expression of FLIP have normal thyroid development with no significant changes in thyroid cell death or proliferation.Thyroid 02/2006; 16(1):1-8. · 4.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Apoptosis-related genes play important roles in thymocyte maturation. We show that cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), a procaspase-8-like apoptotic regulator, plays an essential role in the efficient development of mature T lymphocytes. Mice conditionally lacking c-FLIP in T lymphocytes display severe defects in the development of mature T cells, as indicated by a dramatically reduced number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the spleen and lymph nodes of mutant mice. The impaired T lymphocyte maturation in c-FLIP conditional knockout mice occurs at the single-positive thymocyte stage and may be caused by enhanced apoptosis in vivo. Moreover, although c-FLIP has been implicated in T cell receptor signaling through nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and Erk pathways, activation of NF-kappaB and Erk in c-FLIP-deficient thymocytes appears largely intact. Collectively, our data suggest that the primary role of c-FLIP in thymocyte maturation is to protect cells from apoptosis.Journal of Experimental Medicine 09/2005; 202(3):395-404. · 13.85 Impact Factor