Guide RNAs with 5' caps and novel box C/D snoRNA-like domains for modification of snRNAs in metazoa.
ABSTRACT Spliceosomal snRNAs and ribosomal RNAs in metazoans contain numerous modified residues that are functionally important. The most common modifications are site-specific 2'-O-methylation and pseudouridylation, both directed by small ribonucleoprotein particles. Each particle is composed of a short guide RNA and a set of several proteins. All previously characterized modification guide RNAs in metazoa are encoded in and processed from introns.
We have identified and characterized three novel guide RNAs for conserved 2'-O-methylation of U2, U4, and U12 snRNAs. Two guides, termed mgU2-25/61 and mgU12-22/U4-8, appear to be independently transcribed as judged by the presence of methylated guanosine caps at their 5' ends and upstream promoters similar to those of telomerase RNA. These guide RNAs are each composed of a canonical box C/D snoRNA and a novel box C/D snoRNA-like domain, where the C'/D' motif, rather than C/D, can be folded into a conserved kink-turn structure. The snoRNA-like domains are predicted to direct 2'-O-methylation of invariant G residues that occupy analogous positions in the U2 and U12 snRNA secondary structures. A third guide, mgU2-19/30 RNA, is composed of two canonical box C/D snoRNA domains encoded within a single intron.
This is the first description in metazoan cells of 5'-capped modification guide RNAs that appear to be independently transcribed. Since plant, yeast, and protozoan guide RNAs are mostly independently transcribed, the identification of such RNAs argues that ancestral metazoans possessed independently transcribed guide RNAs and only later, during the evolution of metazoan organisms, did the guide RNA genes shift to introns.
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ABSTRACT: Post-transcriptional pseudouridylation and 2'-O-methylation of splicesomal small nuclear ribonucleic acids (snRNAs) is mediated by box H/ACA and box C/D small Cajal body (CB)-specific ribonucleoproteins (scaRNPs), respectively. The WD-repeat protein 79 (WDR79) has been proposed to interact with both classes of modification scaRNPs and target them into the CB. The box H/ACA scaRNAs carry the common CAB box motif (consensus, ugAG) that is required for both WDR79 binding and CB-specific accumulation. Thus far, no cis-acting CB-localization element has been reported for vertebrate box C/D scaRNAs. In this study, systematic mutational analysis of the human U90 and another newly identified box C/D scaRNA, mgU2-47, demonstrated that the CB-specific accumulation of vertebrate intron-encoded box C/D scaRNAs relies on GU- or UG-dominated dinucleotide repeat sequences which are predicted to form the terminal stem-loop of the RNA apical hairpin. While the loop nucleotides are unimportant, the adjacent terminal helix that is composed mostly of consecutive G.U and U.G wobble base-pairs is essential for CB-specific localization of box C/D scaRNAs. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that the newly identified CB localization element, called the G.U/U.G wobble stem, is crucial for in vivo association of box C/D scaRNPs with WDR79.Nucleic Acids Research 04/2014; · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mammalian mRNAs are generated by complex and coordinated biogenesis pathways and acquire 5'-end m(7)G caps that play fundamental roles in processing and translation. Here we show that several selenoprotein mRNAs are not recognized efficiently by translation initiation factor eIF4E because they bear a hypermethylated cap. This cap modification is acquired via a 5'-end maturation pathway similar to that of the small nucle(ol)ar RNAs (sn- and snoRNAs). Our findings also establish that the trimethylguanosine synthase 1 (Tgs1) interacts with selenoprotein mRNAs for cap hypermethylation and that assembly chaperones and core proteins devoted to sn- and snoRNP maturation contribute to recruiting Tgs1 to selenoprotein mRNPs. We further demonstrate that the hypermethylated-capped selenoprotein mRNAs localize to the cytoplasm, are associated with polysomes and thus translated. Moreover, we found that the activity of Tgs1, but not of eIF4E, is required for the synthesis of the GPx1 selenoprotein in vivo.Nucleic Acids Research 07/2014; · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence suggests that small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are involved in tumorigenesis. The roles of small nucleolar RNA 113-1 (SNORD113-1) on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown.Molecular Cancer 09/2014; 13(1):216. · 5.40 Impact Factor