Uromodulin storage diseases: clinical aspects and mechanisms.
ABSTRACT The recent discovery of mutations in the uromodulin gene ( UMOD ) in patients with medullary cystic kidney disease type 2 (MCKD2), familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy (FJHN), and glomerulocystic kidney disease (GCKD) provides the opportunity for a revision of pathogenic aspects and puts forth the basis for a renewed classification. This review focuses on clinical, pathological, and cell biology advances in UMOD -related pathological states, including a review of the associated clinical conditions described to date in the literature. Overall, 31 UMOD mutations associated with MCKD2 and FJHN (205 patients) and 1 mutation associated with GCKD (3 patients) have been described, with a cluster at exons 4 and 5. Most are missense mutations causing a cysteine change in uromodulin sequence. No differences in clinical symptoms between carriers of cysteine versus polar residue changes have been observed; clinical phenotypes invariably are linked to classic MCKD2/FJHN. A common motif among all reports is that many overlapping symptoms between MCKD2 and FJHN are present, and a separation between these 2 entities seems unwarranted or redundant. Cell experiments with mutant variants indicated a delay in intracellular maturation and export dynamics, with consequent uromodulin storage within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Patchy uromodulin deposits in tubule cells were found by means of immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy showed dense fibrillar material in the ER. Mass spectrometry showed only unmodified uromodulin in urine of patients with UMOD mutations. Lack of uromodulin function(s) is associated with impairments in tubular function, particularly the urine-concentrating process, determining water depletion and hyperuricemia. Intracellular uromodulin trapping within the ER probably has a major role in determining tubulointerstitial fibrosis and renal failure. We propose the definition of uromodulin storage diseases for conditions with proven UMOD mutations.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) is exclusively produced by renal tubular cells of the distal loop of Henle and is the most abundant urinary protein in mammals. The physiological function of THP has remained elusive for over half a century; however, new lines of research position it as a central antimicrobial molecule combating urinary tract infection (UTI). Furthermore, the genetic basis of familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy (FJHN), glomerulocystic kidney disease (GCKD) and autosomal dominant medullary cystic kidney disease 2 (MCKD2) has been recently attributed to mutations within the THP gene. In these clinical conditions misfolded THP accumulates in the tubular cells, ultimately leading to overt renal insufficiency. UTI is the most common nonepidemic bacterial infection in humans, where both innate and adaptive components of the immune system as well as the bladder epithelium are involved in its prevention and clearance. Since the urogenital tract is devoid of typical physical barriers such as mucus or a ciliated epithelium, soluble mediators with potent anti-bacterial capabilities might exist. Recently, genetic ablation of the THP gene was shown to lead to severe infection and lethal pyelonephritis in experimental models of UTI. In addition, mounting evidence indicates that, beyond simply a direct antimicrobial activity, THP is a potent immunoregulatory molecule that induces specific THP-directed cell-mediated immunity. In light of these novel findings the particular role of THP as a specialized defense molecule in the urinary tract is discussed.Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 06/2005; 117(9-10):316-22. DOI:10.1007/s00508-005-0353-8 · 0.79 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Autosomal dominant medullary cystic kidney disease type 2 (MCKD2), familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy (FJHN), and autosomal dominant glomerulocystic kidney disease (GCKD) constitute a hereditary renal disease group that may lead to end-stage renal failure caused by mutations of the UMOD gene and its product, uromodulin or Tamm-Horsfall protein. Of 34 different UMOD mutations described to date, 28 were located in exon 4. Based on such mutation clustering, some investigators have proposed that the sequencing of UMOD exon 4 might become a preliminary diagnostic test for patients with this phenotype. We performed linkage analysis and sequencing of the entire codifying region of the UMOD gene in 4 Spanish families with MCKD/FJHN/GCKD. All families were shown to present mutations in the UMOD gene. In 3 families, the detected mutations were located in exon 5. Although 1 novel mutation (Gln316Pro) was observed in 2 of these families, a previously reported mutation (Cys300Gly) was found in the other kindred. The Cys300Gly mutation was found in the family presenting with a GCKD phenotype. Our data show a novel mutation pattern in UMOD , suggesting that exon 5 mutations can be more frequent in some populations. Our results support that every exon of the UMOD gene must be included in molecular testing and provide additional evidence for the existence of a fourth calcium-binding epidermal growth factor-like domain in the structure of Tamm-Horsfall protein. A second family reported to date is described, confirming that the GCKD phenotype may be caused by a UMOD mutation.American Journal of Kidney Diseases 08/2005; 46(1):52-7. DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2005.04.003 · 5.76 Impact Factor
- Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 08/2005; 20(7):1290-4. DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfh851 · 3.49 Impact Factor