Relationship between obesity, smoking, and the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, asymmetric dimethylarginine.
ABSTRACT We investigated the levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an important endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO), as related to metabolic risk factors known to contribute to atherosclerotic disease. Dimethylarginines were analysed in a cross-sectional study of 563 elderly high-risk men (70 +/- 6 years). ADMA and the l-arginine/ADMA (l-arg/ADMA) ratio were highly significantly correlated with several metabolic risk factors. However, only the association with body mass index (BMI) remained significant after adjustment for inter-related variables. When analyzing the results according to being overweight or not, ADMA levels were independently significantly higher (P = .05) and the L-arg/ADMA ratios were significantly lower (P < .008) in individuals with high BMI (> or =26 kg/m(2), median value) as compared with subjects with low BMI. ADMA levels were furthermore significantly lower (P = .037) and L-arginine and the l-arg/ADMA ratios were significantly higher (P = .004 and P = .001, respectively) in smokers compared with nonsmokers, the latter being independent of other risk factors. The strong relationship found between BMI and plasma levels of ADMA and the l-arg/ADMA ratio indicate a link to endothelial dysfunction in overweight subjects. The beneficial dimethylarginine profile observed in smokers in this elderly population is not easily explainable and should be further investigated.
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ABSTRACT: The association of obesity with noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular complications and diabetes, is considered a major threat to the management of health care worldwide. Epidemiological findings show that childhood obesity is rapidly rising in Western society, as well as in developing countries. This pandemic is not without consequences and can affect the risk of future cardiovascular disease in these children. Childhood obesity is associated with endothelial dysfunction, the first yet still reversible step towards atherosclerosis. Advanced research techniques have added further insight on how childhood obesity and associated comorbidities lead to endothelial dysfunction. Techniques used to measure endothelial function were further brought to perfection, and novel biomarkers, including endothelial progenitor cells, were discovered. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical overview on both in vivo as well as in vitro markers for endothelial integrity. Additionally, an in-depth description of the mechanisms that disrupt the delicate balance between endothelial damage and repair will be given. Finally, the effects of lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy on endothelial dysfunction will be reviewed.Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 04/2013; 2013:174782. DOI:10.1155/2013/174782 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of pathophysiological alterations that includes the presence of hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and abdominal obesity. MS is associated with increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial dysfunction with impaired nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability has been implicated in insulin resistance and hypertension. NO is synthesized by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) using l-arginine as substrate. Asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA) is a major and potent endogenous NOS inhibitor, associated with cardiovascular and renal diseases. We tested the hypothesis that plasmatic ADMA levels are increased in patients with MS. We studied 85 adult individuals from Talca, Chile, separated in two groups, 48 individuals with MS (according to modified ATP III criteria), and 37 individuals without MS as controls. ADMA levels were significantly increased in the MS group (mean±standard deviation 0.71±0.38 vs. 0.48±0.28μmol/L, p=0.0009). Furthermore, the levels of ADMA were modestly but significantly correlated with waist circumference (p=0.01) but not with the other components of MS (blood pressure, glycemia, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-c). These results suggest a possible link between increased ADMA levels and the MS.Nitric Oxide 03/2011; 24(4):224-8. DOI:10.1016/j.niox.2011.03.002 · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential associations between serum asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and several anthropometric, biochemical, and lifestyle features in healthy young adults, emphasizing on the putative effects of the antioxidant intake on ADMA concentrations. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements as well as lifestyle features and antioxidant intake were analyzed in 93 healthy young adults aged 18 to 34 years. Fasting blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols, and ADMA concentrations, as well as erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity. Nail samples were collected for the analysis of selenium and zinc concentrations. Values of body mass index (P = .004), waist circumference (P = .008), waist-to-height ratio (P = .046), systolic blood pressure (P < .001), serum glucose (P < .001), and nail selenium (P = .004) and zinc (P = .018) were significantly different between subjects with serum ADMA higher and lower than the median (cutoff, 458 nmol/L). Furthermore, ADMA showed a positive association with several adiposity markers such as body weight (P < .001), body mass index (P < .001), waist circumference (P = .006), waist-to-height ratio (P = .020), body fat mass (P = .001), systolic blood pressure (P = .001), and serum glucose (P < .001), whereas erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity (P = .021) and nail selenium (P = .040) and zinc values (P = .013) were statistically significant negative predictors of ADMA concentrations. In conclusion, ADMA seems to be related with selenium and zinc status and several anthropometric and biochemical measurements linked to metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy young adults. These findings support a role for antioxidant/trace element intake in the modulation of ADMA, whose assessment may be a marker of metabolic syndrome manifestations.Metabolism: clinical and experimental 08/2009; 58(10):1483-8. DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2009.04.037 · 3.61 Impact Factor