Including walnuts in a low-fat/modified-fat diet improves HDL cholesterol-to-total cholesterol ratios in patients with type 2 diabetes

National Centre of Excellence in Functional Foods, Northfields Avenue, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia.
Diabetes Care (Impact Factor: 8.57). 01/2005; 27(12):2777-83. DOI: 10.2337/diacare.27.12.2777
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a moderate-fat diet inclusive of walnuts on blood lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes.
This was a parallel randomized controlled trial comparing three dietary advice groups each with 30% energy as fat: low fat, modified low fat, and modified low fat inclusive of 30 g of walnuts per day. Fifty-eight men and women, mean age 59.3 +/- 8.1 years, started the trial. Dietary advice was given at baseline with monthly follow-up and fortnightly phone calls for support. Body weight, percent body fat, blood lipids, HbA1c, total antioxidant capacity, and erythrocyte fatty acid levels were measured at 0, 3, and 6 months. Data were assessed by repeated-measures ANOVA with an intention-to-treat model.
The walnut group achieved a significantly greater increase in HDL cholesterol-to-total cholesterol ratio (P=0.049) and HDL (P=0.046) than the two other treatment groups. A 10% reduction in LDL cholesterol was also achieved in the walnut group, reflecting a significant effect by group (P=0.032) and time (P=0.036). There were no significant differences between groups for changes in body weight, percent body fat, total antioxidant capacity, or HbA1c levels. The higher dietary polyunsaturated fat-to-saturated fat ratio and intakes of omega-3 fatty acids in the walnut group were confirmed by erythrocyte biomarkers of dietary intake.
Structured "whole of diet" advice that included 30 g of walnuts/day delivering substantial amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid improved the lipid profile of patients with type 2 diabetes.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nuts have been demonstrated to improve several cardiovascular risk factors and the lipid profile in diabetic and pre-diabetic subjects. However, analysis of conventional serum lipid profiles does not completely explain the atherogenic risk associated with pre-diabetes. We therefore investigated whether chronic consumption of pistachio modifies the lipoprotein subclasses to a healthier profile in pre-diabetic subjects. Randomized cross-over clinical trial in 54 subjects with pre-diabetes. Subjects consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50% carbohydrates, 33% fat, including 57 g/d of pistachios daily) and a control diet (CD, 55% carbohydrates, 30% fat) for 4 months each, separated by a 2-week wash-out. Diets were isocaloric and matched for protein, fiber and saturated fatty acids. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was performed to determine changes in plasma lipoprotein subclasses. Small low-density lipoprotein particles (sLDL-P) significantly decreased after pistachio consumption compared to the nut-free diet (P = 0.023). The non-high-density lipoprotein particles (non-HDL-P i.e. VLDL-P plus LDL-P) significantly decreased under the PD compared to CD (P = 0.041). The percentage of sHDL-P increased by 2.23% after the PD compared with a reduction of 0.08% after the CD (P = 0.014). Consequently, the overall size of HDL-P significantly decreased in the PD (P = 0.007). Chronic pistachio consumption could modify the lipoprotein particle size and subclass concentrations independently of changes in total plasma lipid profile, which may help to explain the decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality associated with those individuals who frequently consumed nuts. This study is registered at as NCT01441921. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2015.01.013 · 3.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several studies have demonstrated the benefits of vegetable oil on cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes. The goal of the present study was to compare the effects of olive, almond and walnut oil on serum glucose, lipids and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients. In this cross over clinical study 24 hypercholesterolemic type 2 diabetic patients were recruited. Subjects consecutively assigned to consume 40 cc olive, almond and walnut oil daily over a 4-week period with a two-week washout period, accompanied by the Step I diet. Anthropometric measurements, HbA1c, lipid profile and serum glucose and blood pressure were measured initially and at the end of the study. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-cholesterol at baseline and at the end of trial differed significantly after olive oil (P = 0.007, P = 0.02) and triglyceride (TG) after almond oil (P = 0.02). When the differences of these laboratory levels between olive, almond and walnut were tested, no significant differences were found. Our findings showed olive oil could reduce significantly serum levels of TC and LDL. Almond consumption could decrease TG significantly. Our research could not show significant reduction in blood pressure.
    International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries 06/2013; 33(2):115-119. DOI:10.1007/s13410-012-0108-9 · 0.37 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Theoretical modeling of the input signal in the Laser Doppler Flowmetry was carried out taking into account the effect of amplitude modulation of the reference beam. The deposit of the amplitude modulation in the total detected signal can be of the same order or more than the magnitude of the light-beating Doppler-shifted part of the total signal.
    2014 International Conference Laser Optics; 06/2014


Available from
May 23, 2014