Prenatal pregnancy intention and early childhood stunting: Findings from Bolivia

University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College, Brownsville, Texas, United States
International Journal of Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 9.18). 05/2005; 34(2):387-96. DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyh354
Source: PubMed


This study examined the impact of maternally reported pregnancy intention, differentiating unwanted and mistimed pregnancies, on the prevalence of early childhood stunting. Additionally, it examined the influence of paternal pregnancy intention status.
Data were collected from a nationally representative sample of women and men interviewed in the 1998 Bolivia Demographic and Health Survey. The sample was restricted to lastborn, singleton children younger than 36 months who had complete anthropometric information. Multivariable logistic regression examined the association between pregnancy intention and stunting.
Children from unwanted and mistimed pregnancies comprised 33% and 21% of the sample, respectively. Approximately 29% of the maternally unwanted children were stunted as compared to 19% among intended and 19% among mistimed children. Children 12-35 months (toddlers) from mistimed pregnancies (adjusted prevalence risk ratio [PR(adj)] 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.72) and unwanted pregnancies (PR(adj) 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.56) were at about a 30% greater risk for stunting than children from intended pregnancies. Infants and toddlers with both parents reporting them as unwanted had an increased risk of being stunted as compared with children both of whose parents intended the pregnancy. No association was found for infants less than 12 months.
Reducing unintended pregnancies in Bolivia may decrease the prevalence of childhood growth stunting. Children born to parents reporting mistimed or unwanted pregnancies should be monitored for growth stunting, and appropriate interventions should be developed. Measurement of paternal pregnancy intention status is valuable in pregnancy intention studies.

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Available from: Maureen Sanderson, Sep 04, 2015
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    • "It started by identifying whether a women was pregnant or not and then asked whether the current pregnancy was intended or not. Hence, there was a high probability of getting accurate responses compared to studies that depended on retrospective questioning, which were highly affected by memory lapse and the outcome of the pregnancy [23]. However, as reported previously, once pregnancy occurred there was a tendency to report that the pregnancy was intended [2,16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In Ethiopia, little is known about pregnancy among rural women. Proper maternal health care depends on clear understanding of the reproductive health situation. The objective of this study was to identify predictors of unintended pregnancy in rural eastern Ethiopia. This study was part of pregnancy surveillance at Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center, East Ethiopia. Pregnant women were assessed whether their current pregnancy was intended or not. Data were collected by lay interviewers using uniform questionnaire. Odds Ratio, with 95% confidence interval using multiple and multinomial logistic regression were calculated to detect level of significance. Unintended pregnancy was reported by 27.9% (578/2072) of the study subjects. Out of which, 440 were mistimed and 138 were not wanted. Unintended pregnancy was associated with family wealth status (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.14, 1.90), high parity (7 +) (OR 5.18; 95% CI 3.31, 8.12), and a longer estimated time to walk to the nearest health care facility (OR 2.24; 95% CI: 1.49, 3.39).In the multinomial regression, women from poor family reported that their pregnancy was mistimed (OR 1.69; 95% CI 1.27, 2.25). The longer estimated time (80 + minutes) to walk to the nearest health care facility influenced the occurrence of mistimed pregnancy (OR 2.58; 95% CI: 1.65, 4.02). High parity (7+) showed a strong association to mistimed and unwanted pregnancies (OR 3.11; 95% CI 1.87, 5.12) and (OR 14.34; 95% CI 5.72, 35.98), respectively. The economy of the family, parity, and walking distance to the nearest health care institution are strong predictors of unintended pregnancy. In order to reduce the high rate of unintended pregnancy Efforts to reach rural women with family planning services should be strengthened.
    Reproductive Health 01/2012; 9(1):1. DOI:10.1186/1742-4755-9-1 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    • "A number of developing country studies have reported a significant relationship between wantedness status and length of breastfeeding (Berra et al. 2001; Chinebuah and Perez-Escamilla, 2001; Hromi-Fiedler and Perez-Escamilla, 2006). While at least one study from Bolivia found a significant relationship between unintended pregnancy and childhood nutritional status during ages 12-35 months (Shapiro-Mendoza et al. 2005), findings from other studies have been more equivocal (Marston and Cleland 2003; Montgomery et al. 1997). "

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