Change in the expressed gene patterns of the wing disc during the metamorphosis of Bombyx mori.
ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to clarify what occurs during the metamorphosis of the imaginal disc in insects. To understand the metamorphosis on a molecular level, the changes in expression profiles in the imaginal disc during metamorphosis were investigated. For this purpose, we constructed cDNA libraries from four different stages of wing discs of Bombyx mori, sequenced about 1000 cDNAs randomly collected from each library, and constructed a database of expressed sequence tags (EST). The morphological changes and expression profiles from EST were compared during those four stages. Microarray analysis was applied to quantify the expression of each gene in each stage in order to confirm whether the expression of the genes identified from EST was induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) in a stage-specific manner. Wing discs showed dynamic morphogenesis in 4-5 days during the preparatory stage of metamorphosis, which was under the control of an ecdysteroid. Different expressed profiles were observed in each of the four different stages by comparison of each EST clone. These profiles reflected the morphological changes of the Bombyx wing disc during metamorphosis. The results of expression profiles from the four stages suggested that the V4 stage was cell proliferating; W0, proliferating and the beginning of differentiation; W2, morphologically changing; W3, cuticle secreting. Microarray analysis showed the effectiveness of its application on 20E induction of genes in wing discs. The wing disc of B. mori is an exceptionally suitable system for understanding the relationship between morphological changes and the distribution of mRNA.
Article: Existence of prophenoloxidase in wing discs: a source of plasma prophenoloxidase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In insects, hemocytes are considered as the only source of plasma prophenoloxidase (PPO). PPO also exists in the hemocytes of the hematopoietic organ that is connected to the wing disc of Bombyx mori. It is unknown whether there are other cells or tissues that can produce PPO and release it into the hemolymph besides circulating hemocytes. In this study, we use the silkworm as a model to explore this possibility. Through tissue staining and biochemical assays, we found that wing discs contain PPO that can be released into the culture medium in vitro. An in situ assay showed that some cells in the cavity of wing discs have PPO1 and PPO2 mRNA. We conclude that the hematopoietic organ may wrongly release hemocytes into wing discs since they are connected through many tubes as repost in previous paper. In wing discs, the infiltrating hemocytes produce and release PPO probably through cell lysis and the PPO is later transported into hemolymph. Therefore, this might be another source of plasma PPO in the silkworm: some infiltrated hemocytes sourced from the hematopoietic organ release PPO via wing discs.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e41416. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Socio-environmental and endocrine influences on developmental and caste-regulatory gene expression in the eusocial termite Reticulitermes flavipes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Strict regulation of caste differentiation, at the molecular level, is thought to be important to maintain social structure in insect societies. Previously, a number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors have been shown to influence caste composition in termite colonies. One important factor is the influence of nestmates; in particular, soldier termites are known to inhibit hormone-dependent worker-to-soldier differentiation. However, soldier influences on nestmates at the molecular level are virtually unknown. Here, to test the hypothesis that soldiers can influence nestmate gene expression, we investigated the impact of four treatments on whole-body gene expression in totipotent Reticulitermes flavipes workers: (i) juvenile hormone III (JHIII; a morphogenetic hormone), (ii) soldier head extracts (SHE), (iii) JHIII+SHE, and (iv) live soldiers. Using quantitative-real-time PCR we determined the expression patterns of 49 previously identified candidate genes in response to the four treatments at assay days 1, 5, and 10. Thirty-eight total genes from three categories (chemical production/degradation, hemolymph protein, and developmental) showed significant differential expression among treatments. Most importantly, SHE and live soldier treatments had a significant impact on a number of genes from families known to play roles in insect development, supporting previous findings and hypotheses that soldiers regulate nestmate caste differentiation via terpene primer pheromones contained in their heads. This research provides new insights into the impacts that socio-environmental factors (JH, soldiers, primer pheromones) can have on termite gene expression and caste differentiation, and reveals a number of socially-relevant genes for investigation in subsequent caste differentiation research.BMC Molecular Biology 04/2010; 11:28. · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This overview examines recent progress in the application of molecular tools to the study of insect biology and the development of pest management strategies. The sequencing and annotation of insect genomes, coupled with analyses using comparative genomics, are providing new insights into the molecular underpinnings of insect-specific processes and shedding light on their evolutionary relationships. Researchers investigate the functions of insect genes using indirect approaches such as expression profiling, and direct methods such as insertional mutagenesis and RNA interference. Biotechnological applications to pest management include the development of resistant crops and trees that express insect-specific toxins, the design of microbial agents with enhanced insecticidal potency, and the engineering of insects that can transfer lethal genes to natural populations following their mass release in the field. Comparative genomics analyses also make it possible to identify insect-specific genes that can be targeted for rational insecticide design, using tools such as cell-based, high-throughput screening assays.BioScience 08/2008; · 4.62 Impact Factor