Progression from frontal–parietal to mesial–temporal epilepsy after fluid percussion injury in the rat

Department of Neurological Surgery, Center on Human Development and Disability, University of Washington, School of Medicine, Harborview Medical Center, Box 359915, 325 Ninth Avenue, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.
Brain (Impact Factor: 10.23). 02/2005; 128(Pt 1):174-88. DOI: 10.1093/brain/awh337
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We recently described an in vivo model of post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) in the rat where chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures appear following a single episode of fluid percussion injury (FPI). PTE, studied during the first 2 months post-injury, was focal and seizures originated predominantly from the frontal-parietal neocortex at or around the injury site. However, rarer bilateral seizures originating from a different and undefined focus were also observed. To shed light on the Posttraumatic Epileptogenic mechanisms and on the generation of bilateral seizures, we studied rats up to 7 months post-injury. In vivo paired epidural and depth-electrode recordings indicated that the anterior hippocampus evolves into an epileptic focus which initiates bilateral seizures. The rate of frontal-parietal seizures remained constant over time after 2 weeks post-injury, while the rate of hippocampal seizures greatly increased over time, suggesting that different mechanisms mediate neocortical and hippocampal post-traumatic epileptogenesis. Because of different temporal evolution of these foci, the epileptic syndrome was characterized by predominant frontal-parietal seizures early after injury, but by predominant mesio-temporal seizures at later time points. Pathological analysis demonstrated progressive hippocampal and temporal cortex pathology that paralleled the increase in frequency and duration of bilateral seizures. These results demonstrate that FPI-induced frontal-parietal epilepsy (FPE) progresses to mesial-temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with dual pathology. These observations establish numerous similarities between FPI-induced and human PTE and further validate it as a clinically relevant model of PTE.

Download full-text


Available from: John W Miller, Jun 11, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause a myriad of sequelae depending on its type, severity, and location of injured structures. These can include mood disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder and other anxiety disorders, personality disorders, aggressive disorders, cognitive changes, chronic pain, sleep problems, motor or sensory impairments, endocrine dysfunction, gastrointestinal disturbances, increased risk of infections, pulmonary disturbances, parkinsonism, posttraumatic epilepsy, or their combinations. The progression of individual pathologies leading to a given phenotype is variable, and some progress for months. Consequently, the different post-TBI phenotypes appear within different time windows. In parallel with morbidogenesis, spontaneous recovery occurs both in experimental models and in human TBI. A great challenge remains; how can we dissect the specific mechanisms that lead to the different endophenotypes, such as posttraumatic epileptogenesis, in order to identify treatment approaches that would not compromise recovery? This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “NEWroscience 2013”.
    Epilepsy & Behavior 09/2014; 38. DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2014.01.013
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Spike–wave discharges (SWDs) are thalamocortical oscillations that are often considered to be the EEG correlate of absence seizures. Genetic absence epilepsy rats of Strasbourg (GAERS) and Wistar Albino Glaxo rats from Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) exhibit SWDs and are considered to be genetic animal models of absence epilepsy. However, it has been reported that other rat strains have SWDs, suggesting that SWDs may vary in their prevalence, but all rats have a predisposition for them. This is important because many of these rat strains are used to study temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), where it is assumed that there is no seizure-like activity in controls. In the course of other studies using the Sprague–Dawley rat, a common rat strain for animal models of TLE, we found that approximately 19% of 2- to 3-month-old naive female Sprague–Dawley rats exhibited SWDs spontaneously during periods of behavioral arrest, which continued for months. Males exhibited SWDs only after 3 months of age, consistent with previous reports (Buzsáki et al., 1990). Housing in atypical lighting during early life appeared to facilitate the incidence of SWDs. Spike–wave discharges were often accompanied by behaviors similar to stage 1–2 limbic seizures. Therefore, additional analyses were made to address the similarity. We observed that the frequency of SWDs was similar to that of hippocampal theta rhythm during exploration for a given animal, typically 7–8 Hz. Therefore, activity in the frequency of theta rhythm that occurs during frozen behavior may not reflect seizures necessarily. Hippocampal recordings exhibited high frequency oscillations (> 250 Hz) during SWDs, suggesting that neuronal activity in the hippocampus occurs during SWDs, i.e., it is not a passive structure. The data also suggest that high frequency oscillations, if rhythmic, may reflect SWDs. We also confirmed that SWDs were present in a common animal model of TLE, the pilocarpine model, using female Sprague–Dawley rats. Therefore, damage and associated changes to thalamic, hippocampal, and cortical neurons do not prevent SWDs, at least in this animal model. The results suggest that it is possible that SWDs occur in rodent models of TLE and that investigators mistakenly assume that they are stage 1–2 limbic seizures. We discuss the implications of the results and ways to avoid the potential problems associated with SWDs in animal models of TLE.
    Epilepsy & Behavior 03/2014; 32:121–131. DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2014.01.004
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Relevant to the definition of epileptic encephalopathy (EE) is the concept that the epileptic activity itself may contribute to bad outcomes, both in terms of epilepsy and cognition, above and beyond what might be expected from the underlying pathology alone, and that these can worsen over time. The review of the clinical and experimental evidence that seizures or interictal electroencephalography (EEG) discharges themselves can induce a progression toward more severe epilepsy and a regression of brain function leads to the following conclusions: The possibility of seizure-dependent worsening is by no means a general one but is limited to some types of epilepsy, namely mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and EEs. Clinical and experimental data concur in indicating that prolonged seizures/status epilepticus (SE) are a risky initial event that can set in motion an epileptogenic process leading to persistent, possibly drug-refractory epilepsies. The mechanisms for SE-related epileptogenic process are incompletely known; they seem to involve inflammation and/or glutamatergic transmission. The evidence of the role of recurrent individual seizures in sustaining epilepsy progression is ambiguous. The correlation between high seizure frequency and bad outcome does not necessarily demonstrate a cause-effect relationship, rather high seizure frequency and bad outcome can both depend on a particularly aggressive epileptogenic process. The results of EE studies challenge the idea of a common seizure-dependent mechanism for epilepsy progression/intellectual deterioration.
    Epilepsia 11/2013; 54 Suppl 8:14-21. DOI:10.1111/epi.12418