Article

Seasonal dynamics of the fecal excretion of Elaphostrongylus cervi (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea) first-stage larvae in Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) from southern Spain.

Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos IREC (CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005, Ciudad Real, Spain.
Parasitology Research (Impact Factor: 2.85). 02/2005; 95(1):60-4. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-004-1255-9
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Elaphostrongylus cervi (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea) is an extrapulmonary lungworm of red deer (Cervus elaphus) whose first-stage larvae (L1) require terrestrial gastropods as intermediate hosts. The seasonal pattern of fecal excretion of E. cervi L1 in Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) was monitored during three annual periods (June 2000-May 2003) on a hunting estate from south-central Spain. The lowest rates of mean intensity of fecal L1 were found in summer, whereas no seasonal variation was found for prevalence. Monthly intensity of excretion was positively associated with early rainfall (the next month) rather than with rainfall of the same month. This seasonal rhythm of E. cervi L1 discharge may be the result of parasite adaptation to the seasonal Mediterranean climate and habitat constraints to improve the chance of parasite transmission. We have standardized the sampling period to compare E. cervi L1 infection rates of Iberian red deer populations in Mediterranean Spain, a natural limit of both the parasite and deer historical ranges, for potential use in the assessment of management strategies.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
52 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Faecal surveys are commonly used as non-invasive means to evaluate population abundance of animals as well as comparable indexes of prevalence and intensity of diseases between populations, especially macroparasites. While faecal surveys are among one of the simplest means to perform these evaluations, they are time consuming and labour intensive. The present study evaluated 80 red deer (Cervus elaphus) faecal samples collected in two study sites for the presence and abundance of first-stage larvae of the nematode Elaphostrongylus cervi and established pools of samples for epidemiological analysis. The analysis of 20-30 individual samples would produce a reliable estimate of the 'true' prevalence, and the error of the smaller sample size only doubled that of the 80 reference samples. The analysis of 5 pools of 5 pellet groups each, or of 4 pools of 10 pellet groups each, provided a reliable estimation of the 'true' excretion abundance estimated by the analysis of all 80 samples. These pools comprise a cost-effective and dependable alternative for measuring and obtaining comparable abundances of parasitic faecal excretion stages in red deer populations, which is very valuable for epidemiological and ecological research as well as for management purposes.
    Journal of Helminthology 05/2008; 82(3):255-61. · 1.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We studied the helminth community and body condition of 99 hunter-harvested red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) from Ciudad Real (Central Spain). Forty-six were sampled in two game estates where an important number of farm-reared red-legged partridges are released yearly. The remaining 53 were obtained from natural wild populations adjacent to one of the estates with releases. Four nematode species (Heterakis gallinarum, Aonchoteca caudinflata, Eucoleus contortus and Cheilospirura gruveli) and two cestode species (Raillietina (R.) tetragona and Skryabinia bolivari) were identified. The managed areas showed higher parasite diversity, with higher prevalences and intensities for all helminths found. Three of these species were typical of farm-bred partridges and two of these, A. caundinflata and S. bolivari, were found parasitizing adult partridges. This suggests introduction of these helminths into the breeding population of managed states. The birds sampled in the nonmanaged estates showed a better body condition, but no relation with parasite infection was found. Our results suggest that the release of farm-reared red-legged partridges, a strategy that is becoming a common practice in Spanish hunting areas, poses risk to wild populations because of introducing parasites. However, these results also suggest that simply stopping releases may be a good way to remove locally those parasites from populations, as the establishment of the introduced parasites seems limited.
    European Journal of Wildlife Research 04/2008; 54(2):199-204. · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate new baits for the oral delivery of vaccine preparations to 2-4 month-old wild boar piglets. Baits were prepared using a matrix composed of wild boar feed, wheat flour, paraffin, sacarose and cinnamon-truffle powder attractant with polyethylene capsules dipped into the matrix to introduce vaccine formulation. Physical stability studies demonstrated that baits were stable for at least three days at temperatures as high as 42 degrees C. Recombinant Escherichia coli expressing the membrane-displayed BM95-MSP1a fusion protein were used to test bacterial viability in the baits and the antibody response in orally immunized wild boar. The E. coli viability was not significantly affected after bait incubation at 25 and 37 degrees C for 96h. Bait acceptance studies using artificial feeders in the field showed that baits were accepted by 2-3month-old animals, the preferred age for vaccination. Orally immunized wild boar piglets excreted recombinant E. coli in the feces and developed antibody titers to recombinant BM95-MSP1a protein, thus confirming that vaccine composition was released and reached the wild boar gastrointestinal track. The results of these experiments support the use of these baits for oral delivery of vaccine formulations to 2-4month-old wild boar piglets.
    Research in Veterinary Science 11/2008; 86(3):388-93. · 1.77 Impact Factor