Seasonal dynamics of the fecal excretion of Elaphostrongylus cervi (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea) first-stage larvae in Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) from southern Spain.
ABSTRACT Elaphostrongylus cervi (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea) is an extrapulmonary lungworm of red deer (Cervus elaphus) whose first-stage larvae (L1) require terrestrial gastropods as intermediate hosts. The seasonal pattern of fecal excretion of E. cervi L1 in Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) was monitored during three annual periods (June 2000-May 2003) on a hunting estate from south-central Spain. The lowest rates of mean intensity of fecal L1 were found in summer, whereas no seasonal variation was found for prevalence. Monthly intensity of excretion was positively associated with early rainfall (the next month) rather than with rainfall of the same month. This seasonal rhythm of E. cervi L1 discharge may be the result of parasite adaptation to the seasonal Mediterranean climate and habitat constraints to improve the chance of parasite transmission. We have standardized the sampling period to compare E. cervi L1 infection rates of Iberian red deer populations in Mediterranean Spain, a natural limit of both the parasite and deer historical ranges, for potential use in the assessment of management strategies.
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ABSTRACT: A case of meningeal nematodiasis in an adult female red deer (Cervus elaphus) in the Trento Province, northeastern Italy is described. The red deer was found dead in the month of March after having been noticed with neurological signs. The carcass was emaciated. Adult nematodes were found in the cerebral meninges. They were identified as Elaphostrongylus cervi. The finding of the neurotropic nematodes was associated with haemorrhagic foci in the occipital region. Histopathological examination revealed the presence of mild astrocitosis and lymphocytic perivascular cuffs, but worms were not present in the brain parenchyma. Bacteriological analysis and research for CWD lesions and agent were negative. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of cerebral nematodiasis in a red deer in Italy .
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ABSTRACT: In recent decades the management of large game mammals has become increasingly intensive in south central Spain (SCS), resulting in complex epidemiological scenarios for disease maintenance, and has probably impeded schemes to eradicate tuberculosis (TB) in domestic livestock. We conducted an analysis of risk factors which investigated associations between the pattern of tuberculosis-like lesions (TBL) in wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) across 19 hunting estates from SCS and an extensive set of variables related to game management, land use and habitat structure. The aggregation of wild boar at artificial watering sites was significantly associated with an increasing risk of detecting TBL in both species, which probably relates to enhanced opportunities for transmission. Aggregation of wild boar at feeding sites was also associated with increased risks of TBL in red deer. Hardwood Quercus spp. forest availability was marginally associated with an increased risk of TB in both species, whereas scrubland cover was associated with a reduced individual risk of TBL in the wild boar. It is concluded that management practices that encourage the aggregation of hosts, and some characteristics of Mediterranean habitats could increase the frequency and probability of both direct and indirect transmission of TB. These findings are of concern for both veterinary and public health authorities, and reveal tuberculosis itself as a potential limiting factor for the development and sustainability of such intensive game management systems in Spanish Mediterranean habitats.Veterinary Research 01/2007; 38(3):451-64. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We studied the helminth community and body condition of 99 hunter-harvested red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) from Ciudad Real (Central Spain). Forty-six were sampled in two game estates where an important number of farm-reared red-legged partridges are released yearly. The remaining 53 were obtained from natural wild populations adjacent to one of the estates with releases. Four nematode species (Heterakis gallinarum, Aonchoteca caudinflata, Eucoleus contortus and Cheilospirura gruveli) and two cestode species (Raillietina (R.) tetragona and Skryabinia bolivari) were identified. The managed areas showed higher parasite diversity, with higher prevalences and intensities for all helminths found. Three of these species were typical of farm-bred partridges and two of these, A. caundinflata and S. bolivari, were found parasitizing adult partridges. This suggests introduction of these helminths into the breeding population of managed states. The birds sampled in the nonmanaged estates showed a better body condition, but no relation with parasite infection was found. Our results suggest that the release of farm-reared red-legged partridges, a strategy that is becoming a common practice in Spanish hunting areas, poses risk to wild populations because of introducing parasites. However, these results also suggest that simply stopping releases may be a good way to remove locally those parasites from populations, as the establishment of the introduced parasites seems limited.European Journal of Wildlife Research 04/2008; 54(2):199-204. · 1.36 Impact Factor