HIV/HCV coinfection in clinical practice.
ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) frequently co-exist due to shared routes of transmission. In the past, the impact of HCV on overall morbidity and mortality of coinfected patients was minimal due to the poor prognosis of HIV. However, since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HCV has become a significant pathogen in this population. HIV clearly exacerbates HCV infection and accelerates progression to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is debate over whether HCV influences the natural history of HIV. Given the high prevalence of coinfection and the accelerated liver damage, HCV treatment has become a priority in these patients. There are new data on pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) therapy for HCV in coinfected patients. The therapy is well tolerated and safe, although it appears to be slightly less effective than in monoinfected patients. The risk of HAART-related hepatotoxicity is greater in coinfected patients and therefore requires special consideration and close monitoring.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the study is to investigate the prevalence of the dental patients who had a history of hepatitis. A total of 13.527 records of patients who were examined between October 1, 2002 and October 1, 2004 were reviewed retrospectively. The medical histories of patients were taken before routine clinical and radiographic examination. A dental software program was used for the collection of data. The chi-square test was utilized to evaluate correlations between different parameters. The percentage of the patients who had a medical history of hepatitis was 7.9% (n=1065). Within the total patients; history of hepatitis A was found as 3.2% (n=438), hepatitis B was 2.3% (n=308), hepatitis C was 0.1% (n=16). The frequency of the patients who were hepatitis B carriers was 0.8% (n=113) and 17% (n=181) of patients did not know which type of hepatitis they had suffered from. Because dentists are particularly at risk for contacting hepatitis, a strict sterilization procedure is mandatory to prevent the transmission.Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal 02/2006; 11(1):E29-32. · 1.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This was a 36-day, open-label, fixed-sequence, multiple-dose drug interaction study in 23 healthy subjects to evaluate the effects of multiple doses of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of ribavirin. Subjects received a 600-mg once-daily oral dose of ribavirin on days 1 and 22 and 300-mg once-daily oral doses of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate on days 17 through 24. Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed on days 1 through 4 and 22 through 25. Pharmacokinetics of ribavirin was not altered by its coadministration with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate as the point estimates (day 22 [test treatment]/day 1 [reference treatment]), and the 90% confidence interval for maximum observed concentration (0.95; 88.7-101) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve up to time of last measurable concentration (1.12; 106-117) were within the equivalence bounds of 80% to 125%. Tenofovir pharmacokinetics after ribavirin coadministration was similar to that observed in previous studies. These results indicate that coadministration of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and ribavirin does not result in substantial changes to their individual pharmacokinetic profiles.The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 06/2006; 46(5):559-66. · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represent, either alone or in combination, more than two thirds of all patients with liver disease in the Western world. This review discusses the epidemiology and combined impact of ALD and HCV on the progression of liver disease. ALD and HCV affect the progression of liver disease to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a synergistic manner. Thus, the risk for HCC increases five times with a daily alcohol consumption of 80 g; in the presence of HCV it is increased 20-fold, and a combination of both risk factors leads to a more than 100-fold risk for HCC development. Alcohol consumption also decreases the response to interferon treatment which is probably due to a lack of compliance than a direct effect on HCV replication. Several molecular mechanisms are discussed that could explain the synergistic interaction of alcohol and HCV on disease progression. They include modulation of the immune response and apoptosis, increased oxidative stress via induction of CYP2E1 and the hepatic accumulation of iron. Thus, both HCV and alcohol independently cause hepatic iron accumulation in > 50% of patients probably due to suppression of the liver-secreted systemic iron hormone hepcidin. A better understanding of hepcidin regulation could help in developing novel therapeutic approaches to treat the chronic disease in the future. For now, it can be generally concluded that HCV-infected patients should abstain from alcohol and alcoholics should be encouraged to participate in detoxification programs.World Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2009; 15(28):3462-71. · 2.43 Impact Factor