Effect of estrogen receptor agonists treatment in MPTP mice: evidence of neuroprotection by an ER alpha agonist.
ABSTRACT Beneficial effects of 17 beta-estradiol (17 beta-E(2)) on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced striatal dopamine (DA) depletion are well documented but the mechanisms implicated are poorly understood. The present experiments investigated the effect of estrogen receptor (ER) agonists treatment in MPTP mice as compared to 17 beta-E(2). The agonists specific for each subtype were 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)tris-phenol (PPT) (ER alpha agonist), 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN) and Delta 3-diol (5-androsten-3 beta, 17 beta-diol, also known as 5-androstenediol, androstenediol or hermaphrodiol) (ER beta agonists). Biogenic amines were assayed by HPLC with electrochemical detection. 8 mg/kg of MPTP was administered to give a moderate depletion of striatal DA and its metabolite dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). Protection against MPTP-induced striatal DA and DOPAC depletion was obtained with PPT and 17 beta-E(2) but not with DPN or Delta 3-diol. The striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) was assayed by autoradiography with [(125)I]RTI-121-specific binding. A positive and significant correlation was observed between striatal DA concentrations and [(125)I]RTI-121-specific binding, suggesting that estrogenic treatment that prevented the MPTP-induced DA depletion also prevented loss of DAT. The effect of PPT suggests the implication of an ER alpha in the estrogenic neuroprotection against MPTP. Pointing out which ER is implicated in neuroprotection becomes helpful in designing more specific estrogenic drugs for protection of the aging brain.
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ABSTRACT: HIV-associated damage to the central nervous system results in cognitive and motor deficits. Anti-retroviral therapies reduce the severity of symptoms, yet the proportion of patients affected has remained the same or increased. Although approximately half of HIV-infected patients worldwide are women, the question of whether biological sex influences outcomes of HIV infection has received little attention. We explored this question for both behavioral and cellular/morphologic endpoints, using a transgenic mouse that inducibly expresses HIV-1 Tat in the brain. After 3 months of HIV-1 Tat exposure, both sexes showed similar reduced open field ambulation. Male Tat+ mice also showed reduced forelimb grip strength and enhanced anxiety in a light–dark box assay. Tat+ males did not improve over 12 weeks of repeated rotarod testing, indicating a motor memory deficit. Male mice also had more cellular deficits in the striatum. Neither sex showed a change in volume or total neuron numbers. Both had equally reduced oligodendroglial populations and equivalent microglial increases. However, astrogliosis and microglial nitrosative stress were higher in males. Dendrites on medium spiny neurons in male Tat+ mice had fewer spines, and levels of excitatory and inhibitory pre- and post-synaptic proteins were disrupted. Our results predict sex as a determinant of HIV effects in brain. Increased behavioral deficits in males correlated with glial activation and synaptic damage, both of which are implicated in cognitive/motor impairments in patients. Tat produced by residually infected cells despite antiretroviral therapy may be an important determinant of the synaptodendritic instability and behavioral deficits accompanying chronic infection. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00429-013-0676-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.Brain Structure and Function 12/2013; 220(2). DOI:10.1007/s00429-013-0676-6 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The existence of a sex difference in Parkinson's disease (PD) is observed as related to several variables, including susceptibility of the disease, age at onset, and symptoms. These differences between men and women represent a significant characteristic of PD, which suggest that estrogens may exert beneficial effects against the development and the progression of the disease. This paper reviews the neuroprotective and neuromodulator effects of 17β-estradiol and progesterone as compared to androgens in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) system of both female and male rodents. The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mice model of PD and methamphetamine toxicity faithfully reproduce the sex differences of PD in that endogenous estrogen levels appear to influence the vulnerability to toxins targeting the NSDA system. Exogenous 17β-estradiol and/or progesterone treatments show neuroprotective properties against NSDA toxins while androgens fail to induce any beneficial effect. Sex steroid treatments show male and female differences in their neuroprotective action against methamphetamine toxicity. NSDA structure and function, as well as the distribution of estrogen receptors, show sex differences and may influence the susceptibility to the toxins and the response to sex steroids. Genomic and non-genomic actions of 17β-estradiol converge to promote survival factors and the presence of both estrogen receptors α and β are critical to 17β-estradiol neuroprotective action against MPTP toxicity.Frontiers in Endocrinology 09/2011; 2:35. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2011.00035
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopamine neuron loss in the nigrostriatal pathway that shows greater incidence in men than women. The mechanisms underlying this gender bias remain elusive, although one possibility is that androgens may increase dopamine neuronal vulnerability to oxidative stress. Motor impairment can be modeled in rats receiving a unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a neurotoxin producing nigrostriatal degeneration. To investigate the role of androgens in PD, we compared young (2 months) and aged (24 months) male rats receiving gonadectomy (GDX) and their corresponding intact controls. One month after GDX, rats were unilaterally injected with 6-OHDA, and their motor impairment and asymmetry were assessed 2 weeks later using the cylinder test and the amphetamine-induced rotation test. Plasma samples were also collected to assess the concentration of testosterone and advanced oxidation protein products, a product of oxidative stress. GDX decreased lesion-induced asymmetry along with oxidative stress and increased amphetamine-induced rotations. These results show that GDX improves motor behaviors by decreasing motor asymmetry in 6-OHDA-treated rats, an effect that may be ascribed to increased release of striatal dopamine and decreased oxidative stress. Collectively, the data support the hypothesis that androgens may underlie the gender bias observed in PD.Hormones and Behavior 08/2011; 60(5):617-24. DOI:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2011.08.012 · 4.51 Impact Factor