Tyramine receptor (SER-2) isoforms are involved in the regulation of pharyngeal pumping and foraging behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans.
ABSTRACT Octopamine regulates essential processes in nematodes; however, little is known about the physiological role of its precursor, tyramine. In the present study, we have characterized alternatively spliced Caenorhabditis elegans tyramine receptor isoforms (SER-2 and SER-2A) that differ by 23 amino acids within the mid-region of the third intracellular loop. Membranes prepared from cells expressing either SER-2 or SER-2A bind [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the low nanomolar range and exhibit highest affinity for tyramine. Similarly, both isoforms exhibit nearly identical Ki values for a number of antagonists. In contrast, SER-2A exhibits a significantly lower affinity than SER-2 for other physiologically relevant biogenic amines, including octopamine. Pertussis toxin treatment reduces affinity for both tyramine and octopamine, especially for octopamine in membranes from cells expressing SER-2, suggesting that the conformation of the mid-region of the third intracellular loop is dictated by G-protein interactions and is responsible for the differential tyramine/octopamine affinities of the two isoforms. Tyramine reduces forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels in HEK293 cells expressing either isoform with nearly identical IC50 values. Tyramine, but not octopamine, also elevates Ca2+ levels in cells expressing SER-2 and to a lesser extent SER-2A. Most importantly, ser-2 null mutants (pk1357) fail to suppress head movements while reversing in response to nose-touch, suggesting a role for SER-2 in the regulation of foraging behavior, and fail to respond to tyramine in assays measuring serotonin-dependent pharyngeal pumping. These are the first reported functions for SER-2. These results suggest that C. elegans contains tyramine receptors, that individual SER-2 isoforms may differ significantly in their sensitivity to other physiologically relevant biogenic amines, such as octopamine (OA), and that tyraminergic signaling may be important in the regulation of key processes in nematodes.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Vera Hapiak, Mar 31, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Ascaris lumbricoides is the most prevalent soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection of human beings worldwide. Chemotherapy with synthetic anthelmintics such as albendazole, mebendazole, and pyrantel pamoate is the current method of treatment; however, the emergence of anthelmintic resistance could substantially decrease the efficacy of such treatments and the sustainability of STH control programs. Additionally, benzimidazoles are not recommended for pregnant women or children under age one. A blinded, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two microencapsulated, plant-based essential oil blends, TTN1013 (α-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol octanoate) and TTN1014 (α-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol acetate) as functional foods against Ascaris suum infection in pigs, an important pathogen that closely resembles human infections with A. lumbricoides. Four groups of 16 female, 21-24 day old, Yorkshire-cross pigs were treated daily with 0.5 or 1.0mg/kg TTN1013, 1.0mg/kg TTN1014, or 1.0mg/kg equivalent of empty capsules, delivered inside a cream-filled sandwich cookie for 14 weeks. Three days after the initiation of daily treatments, pigs were inoculated daily with A. suum eggs for 4 weeks. Pigs were weighed weekly and fecal egg counts (FEC) were conducted weekly starting five weeks after initial inoculation with A. suum eggs. Fourteen weeks after first infection with eggs, pigs were necropsied and worms were recovered, counted and separated according to sex. TTN1013 administered daily at a dose of 1.0mg/kg yielded a statistically significant reduction in total worm counts (76.8%), female worm counts (75.5%), FEC (68.6%), and worm volume (62.9%) when compared to control group. Reduction of total and female worm numbers and FEC were not significant for TTN1014 or at the 0.5mg/kg dose of TTN1013. All treatments were well-tolerated by all pigs and did not cause any adverse reactions. All pigs remained clinically normal and showed no signs of reduced intestinal health for the duration of treatment. Based on these results, TTN1013 shows promise as a daily supplement to reduce infection burdens of soil transmitted helminths in both pigs and human beings.Acta Tropica 06/2014; 139. DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2014.06.008 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The olfactory response of the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster to food odor is modulated by starvation. Here we show that this modulation is not restricted to food odors and their detecting sensory neurons but rather increases the behavioral response to odors as different as food odors, repellents and pheromones. The increased behavioral responsiveness is paralleled by an increased physiological sensitivity of sensory neurons regardless whether they express olfactory or ionotropic receptors and regardless whether they are housed in basiconic, coeloconic, or trichoid sensilla. Silencing several genes that become up-regulated under starvation confirmed the involvement of the short neuropeptide f receptor in the starvation effect. In addition it revealed that the CCHamide-1 receptor is another important factor governing starvation-induced olfactory modifications.Scientific Reports 09/2013; 3:2765. DOI:10.1038/srep02765 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Monoamines, such as 5-HT and tyramine (TA), paralyze both free-living and parasitic nematodes when applied exogenously and serotonergic agonists have been used to clear Haemonchus contortus infections in vivo. Since nematode cell lines are not available and animal screening options are limited, we have developed a screening platform to identify monoamine receptor agonists. Key receptors were expressed heterologously in chimeric, genetically-engineered Caenorhabditis elegans, at sites likely to yield robust phenotypes upon agonist stimulation. This approach potentially preserves the unique pharmacologies of the receptors, while including nematode-specific accessory proteins and the nematode cuticle. Importantly, the sensitivity of monoamine-dependent paralysis could be increased dramatically by hypotonic incubation or the use of bus mutants with increased cuticular permeabilities. We have demonstrated that the monoamine-dependent inhibition of key interneurons, cholinergic motor neurons or body wall muscle inhibited locomotion and caused paralysis. Specifically, 5-HT paralyzed C. elegans 5-HT receptor null animals expressing either nematode, insect or human orthologues of a key Gαo-coupled 5-HT1-like receptor in the cholinergic motor neurons. Importantly, 8-OH-DPAT and PAPP, 5-HT receptor agonists, differentially paralyzed the transgenic animals, with 8-OH-DPAT paralyzing mutant animals expressing the human receptor at concentrations well below those affecting its C. elegans or insect orthologues. Similarly, 5-HT and TA paralyzed C. elegans 5-HT or TA receptor null animals, respectively, expressing either C. elegans or H. contortus 5-HT or TA-gated Cl- channels in either C. elegans cholinergic motor neurons or body wall muscles. Together, these data suggest that this heterologous, ectopic expression screening approach will be useful for the identification of agonists for key monoamine receptors from parasites and could have broad application for the identification of ligands for a host of potential anthelmintic targets.PLoS Pathogens 04/2015; 11(4):e1004794. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004794 · 8.06 Impact Factor