Comparison of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a commercial enzyme-multiplied immunoassay for the determination of plasma MPA in renal transplant recipients and consequences for therapeutic drug monitoring.
ABSTRACT Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressive drug partly metabolized to MPA-glucuronide (MPAG), which is pharmacologically inactive. The currently available enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) has been reported to overestimate MPA plasma concentration in clinical samples when compared with HPLC techniques. The aims of this study were to design and validate a specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique for the determination of MPA and MPAG using a low plasma volume and a simple sample preparation procedure; then to compare it with EMIT for the determination of MPA in plasma samples collected over an interdose interval at different posttransplantation periods (days 3, 7, and 30 and after 3 months) in 25 renal transplant recipients orally administered cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil twice daily, to investigate the origins of the differences between techniques. The LC-MS/MS technique developed showed limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.1 mg/L and 1 mg/L for MPA and MPAG, respectively, and was linear, accurate, and precise from these LOQs up to 30 mg/L for MPA and 300 mg/L for MPAG. EMIT gave similar results to LC-MS/MS for spiked quality control samples (in a synthetic matrix or in drug-free plasma) but significantly overestimated MPA levels in clinical samples: EMIT - LC-MS/MS = +61.39% +/- 57.94%, with large variations depending on patients, time elapsed since transplantation, sampling time, and concentration levels. These results confirmed the known overestimation of the EMIT assay compared with a specific method and showed that the magnitude of this overestimation depended on sampling time and time after transplantation.
Article: Performance of the new mycophenolate assay based on IMPDH enzymatic activity for pharmacokinetic investigations and setup of Bayesian estimators in different populations of allograft recipients.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A new mycophenolate (MPA) assay based on the enzymatic activity of recombinant type II inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (the pharmacological target of MPA) with excellent correlation with high-performance liquid chromatography has recently been released for the measurement of MPA plasma levels. This study aimed to (1) compare this new assay with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for MPA pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in different populations of allograft recipients given mycophenolate mofetil, (2) develop specific Bayesian estimators for this inhibition assay and test their accuracy, and (3) compare the resulting MPA area under the curve (AUC0-12h) estimates with those of Bayesian estimators developed based on the LC-MS/MS results. Sixty-four adult or pediatric, renal or lung transplant patients who were administered mycophenolate mofetil in association with cyclosporine, tacrolimus, or sirolimus at different post-transplant periods were enrolled as part of different PK studies. Eight hundred ninety-four patients' samples were analyzed in parallel with the enzymatic MPA assay and a reference LC-MS/MS method. Repeated analysis of quality control samples showed a mean difference of 6% between the 2 assays, whereas the results obtained in different populations of transplanted patients showed excellent correlation (r2 > 0.96) and small mean relative differences (2.0%-16.9%). The full profiles obtained with both assays were adequately fitted using either a 2-compartment model with 1 "gamma" absorption phase or a 1-compartment model with 2 gamma inputs. Several PK parameters were significantly affected by the analytical method used. Accurate Bayesian estimators could be specifically developed for the enzymatic MPA assay, using the same 3 concentration-time points (20 minutes, 1 hour, and 3 hours post dose) as with LC-MS/MS, with a median bias versus reference (trapezoidal) AUC0-12h values of -1.3% (range -45.2% to 40.4%), and 83% of the patients within +/-20% of the reference. These Bayesian estimates were significantly higher than those obtained with LC-MS/MS in patients on cyclosporine or sirolimus, but not in patients on tacrolimus.Therapeutic drug monitoring 07/2009; 31(4):443-50. · 2.43 Impact Factor
Article: Simultaneous determination of cyclosporine A, tacrolimus, sirolimus, and everolimus in whole-blood samples by LC-MS/MS.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cyclosporine A (CyA), tacrolimus (TRL), sirolimus (SIR), and everolimus (RAD) are immunosuppressive drugs frequently used in organ transplantation. Our aim was to confirm a robust sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determination of CyA, TRL, SIR, and RAD in whole-blood samples. We used an integrated online solid-phase extraction-LC-MS/MS system and atmospheric pressure ionization tandem mass spectrometry (API-MS/MS) in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) detection mode. CyA, TRL, SIR, and RAD were simultaneously analyzed in whole blood treated with precipitation reagent taken from transplant patients. System performance parameters were suitable for using this method as a high-throughput technique in clinical practice. The high concentration of one analyte in the sample did not affect the concentration of other analytes. Total analytical time was 2.5 min, and retention times of all analytes were shorter than 2 minutes. This LC-MS/MS method can be preferable for therapeutic drug monitoring of these immunosuppressive drugs (CyA, TRL, SRL, and RAD) in whole blood. Sample preparation was too short and simple in this method, and it permits robust, rapid, sensitive, selective, and simultaneous determination of these drugs.TheScientificWorldJOURNAL 01/2012; 2012:571201. · 1.66 Impact Factor
Article: The role of organic anion-transporting polypeptides and their common genetic variants in mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetics.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine the roles of the organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) OATP1A2, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 and their genetic variants in the pharmacokinetics of the immunosuppressive drug mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). Using OATP-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, we measured the uptake of mycophenolic acid (MPA) and its glucuronide (MPAG). MPAG, but not MPA, significantly accumulated in cells expressing OATP1B3 or OATP1B1 (P < 0.05). The pharmacokinetics of both MPA and MPAG were significantly influenced by the OATP1B3 polymorphism 334T>G/699G>A in 70 renal transplant patients receiving combination treatment of MMF with either tacrolimus or sirolimus, but not in 115 patients receiving MMF and cyclosporine. The decrease in dose-normalized (dn) MPA exposure and the concomitant increase in the MPAG/MPA metabolic ratio are consistent with reduced enterohepatic cycling in patients carrying the OATP1B3 334G-699A haplotype. Further studies demonstrated that this variant of OATP1B3 exhibited a reduced maximal velocity (V(max)) in transfected HEK cells, thereby providing functional evidence to support our clinical findings.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 11/2009; 87(1):100-8. · 6.04 Impact Factor