Multidisciplinary Thoracic Oncology Program, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
We employed meta-analytic techniques to evaluate early (E) versus late (L) timing of thoracic radiation therapy (RT) in limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). In addition, we assessed the impact of radiation fractionation and chemotherapeutic regimen on timing.
Randomized trials published after 1985 addressing timing of RT relative to chemotherapy in LS-SCLC were included. Trials were analyzed by risk ratio (RR), risk difference, and number-needed-to-treat methods.
Overall survival (OS) RRs for all studies were 1.17 at 2 years (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.35; P = .03) and 1.13 at 3 years (95% CI, 0.92 to 1.39; P = .2), indicating a significantly increased 2-year survival for ERT versus LRT patients and suggestive of a similar trend at 3 years. Subset analysis of studies using hyperfractionated RT revealed OS RR for ERT versus LRT of 1.44 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.77; P = .001) and 1.39 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.90; P = .04) at 2 and 3 years, respectively, indicating a survival benefit of ERT versus LRT. Studies using once-daily fractionation showed no difference in 2- and 3-year OS RRs for ERT compared with LRT. Studies using platinum-based chemotherapy had OS RRs of 1.30 (95% CI, 1.10 to 1.53; P = .002) and 1.35 (95% CI, 1.07 to 1.70; P = .01) at 2 and 3 years, respectively, favoring ERT. Studies using nonplatinum-based chemotherapy regimens had nonsignificant differences in OS.
A small but significant improvement in 2-year OS for ERT versus LRT in LS-SCLC was observed, similar to the benefit of adding RT to chemotherapy or prophylactic cranial irradiation. A greater difference was evident for hyperfractionated RT and platinum-based chemotherapy.
"Indeed, a randomized phase 3 clinical trial have recently showed that in LD-SCLC thoracic radiotherapy starting in the third cycle of chemotherapy seemed to be non inferior to thoracic radiotherapy administered concurrently with the first cycle of chemotherapy in terms of complete response rate (36% vs 38%, respectively), and it had a more favorable profile with regard to neutropenic fever (10.2% vs 21.6%, p = 0.02) . Therefore, in the strategy of combined treatment for LD-SCLC, it is important to plan early thoracic radiotherapy (possibly with the first-cycle of chemotherapy, but no later than the third cycle), to combine platinum-based chemotherapy and to ensure that the delivery of chemotherapy is optimal when administered with concurrent thoracic radiotherapy   . As a result of the combined treatment, the risk of a thoracic recurrence decreases and brain metastasis becomes one of the main types of relapse, with a cumulative incidence at 2 years higher than 50% . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains a significant challenge for the oncologists. Attemps to improve the results of first-line treatment have all failed so far and no real progress has been made in last years, emphasizing the need for novel strategies of treatment and the development of validated biomarkers. Patients with limited disease and good performance status should be considered for concomitant chemoradiotherapy, followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation. Patients with extensive disease should be treated with a platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin or carboplatin); chest radiotherapy can be considered in patients achieving extra-thoracic complete response and prophylactic cranial irradiation is recommended for patients responsive to initial chemotherapy. A large number of molecular-targeted drugs and immunomodulators are currently in clinical development: however, only a better understanding of molecular biology of SCLC and the identification of molecular markers predictive of response to targeted agents will lead to advances in the treatment of SCLC.
"The timing of TRT in combined chemoradiotherapy has been controversial in several respects. Some argue that TRT should be started simultaneously with chemotherapy [7,10-12], while others claim that a delay of TRT (1-2 cycles) from the beginning of chemotherapy provides similar or better outcomes . One rationale for the former argument is that a simultaneous start of TRT decreases the tolerance of chemotherapy, thereby reducing local relapse and distance metastasis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effect of early chemoradiotherapy on the treatment of patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC).
Between January 2006 and December 2011, thirty-one patients with histologically proven LS-SCLC who were treated with two cycles of chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy and consolidation chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed. The chemotherapy regimen was composed of etoposide and cisplatin. Thoracic radiotherapy consisted of 50 to 60 Gy (median, 54 Gy) given in 5 to 6.5 weeks.
The follow-up period ranged from 5 to 53 months (median, 22 months). After chemoradiotherapy, 35.5% of the patients (11 patients) showed complete response, 61.3% (19 patients) showed partial response, 3.2% (one patient) showed progressive disease, resulting in an overall response rate of 96.8% (30 patients). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 66.5%, 41.0%, and 28.1%, respectively, with a median OS of 21.3 months. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year progression free survival (PFS) rates were 49.8%, 22.8%, and 13.7%, respectively, with median PFS of 12 months. The patterns of failure were: locoregional recurrences in 29.0% (nine patients), distant metastasis in 9.7% (three patients), and both locoregional and distant metastasis in 9.7% (three patients). Grade 3 or 4 toxicities of leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia were observed in 32.2%, 29.0%, and 25.8%, respectively. Grade 3 radiation esophagitis and radiation pneumonitis were shown in 12.9% and 6.4%, respectively.
We conclude that early chemoradiotherapy for LS-SCLC provides feasible and acceptable local control and safety.
"According to the recently meta-analyses , the CCRT itself can decrease locoregional progression and improve overall survival in NSCLC. (3) The start of thoracic radiotherapy in the limited-stage SCLC patients was all within 2 cycles of chemotherapy in our study, which was proved to be favorable in survival than the late start of radiotherapy . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study presented the analysis of free-breathing lung tumor motion characteristics using GE 4DCT and Varian RPM systems. Tumor respiratory movement was found to be associated with GTV size, the superior-inferior tumor location in the lung, and the attachment degree to rigid structure (e.g., chest wall, vertebrae, or mediastinum), with tumor location being the most important factor among the other two. Improved outcomes in survival and local control of 43 lung cancer patients were also reported. Consideration of respiration-induced motion based on 4DCT for lung cancer yields individualized margin and more accurate and safe target coverage and thus can potentially improve treatment outcome.
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