Article

ErbB2 is required for ductal morphogenesis of the mammary gland.

Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8023, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 01/2005; 101(49):17138-43. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0407057101
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The ERBB2/HER2/NEU receptor tyrosine kinase gene is amplified in up to 30% of human breast cancers. The frequent and specific selection of this receptor kinase gene for amplification in breast cancer implies that it has important normal functions in the mammary gland. To investigate the functions of ErbB2 during normal mouse mammary gland development, we transplanted mammary buds from genetically rescued ErbB2(-/-) embryos that express ErbB2 in the cardiac muscle. ErbB2(-/-) mammary buds transplanted to a wild-type mammary fat pad support outgrowth of an epithelial tree that advances only slowly through the mammary fat pad at puberty. This penetration defect is associated with structural defects in terminal end buds, characterized by a decrease in body cell number, an increased presence of cap-like cells in the prelumenal compartment, and the presence of large luminal spaces. Lobuloalveolar development was not affected in glands that developed from ErbB2(-/-) transplanted tissue. The results may have implications for the aggressive phenotypes associated with ERBB2-overexpressing mammary carcinomas.

Full-text

Available from: Gary Bellinger, May 28, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
100 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Morphogenesis, homeostasis, and regeneration of epithelial tissues rely on the accurate orientation of cell divisions, which is specified by the mitotic spindle axis. To remain in the epithelial plane, symmetrically dividing epithelial cells align their mitotic spindle axis with the plane. Here, we show that this alignment depends on epithelial cell-cell communication via semaphorin-plexin signaling. During kidney morphogenesis and repair, renal tubular epithelial cells lacking the transmembrane receptor Plexin-B2 or its semaphorin ligands fail to correctly orient the mitotic spindle, leading to severe defects in epithelial architecture and function. Analyses of a series of transgenic and knockout mice indicate that Plexin-B2 controls the cell division axis by signaling through its GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain and Cdc42. Our data uncover semaphorin-plexin signaling as a central regulatory mechanism of mitotic spindle orientation necessary for the alignment of epithelial cell divisions with the epithelial plane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Developmental Cell 04/2015; 33(3). DOI:10.1016/j.devcel.2015.02.001 · 10.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IntroductionHuman Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (ERBB4/HER4) belongs to the Epidermal Growth Factor receptor/ERBB family of receptor tyrosine kinases. While ERBB1, ERBB2 and ERBB3 are often overexpressed or activated in breast cancer, and are oncogenic, the role of ERBB4 in breast cancer is uncertain. Some studies suggest a tumor suppressor role of ERBB4, while other reports suggest an oncogenic potential. Alternative splicing of ERBB4 yields four major protein products, these spliced isoforms differ in the extracellular juxtamembrane domain (JM-a versus JM-b) and cytoplasmic domain (CYT-1 versus CYT-2). Two of these isoforms, JM-a CYT-1 and JM-a CYT-2, are expressed in the mammary gland. Failure to account for isoform-specific functions in previous studies may account for conflicting reports on the role of ERBB4 in breast cancer.Methods We have produced mouse mammary tumour virus (MMTV) -ERBB4 transgenic mice to evaluate potential developmental and carcinogenic changes associated with full length (FL) JM-a ERBB4 CYT-1 versus ERBB4 CYT-2. Mammary tissue was isolated from transgenic mice and sibling controls at various developmental stages for whole mount analysis, RNA extraction, and immunohistochemistry. To maintain maximal ERBB4 expression, transgenic mice were bred continuously for a year after which mammary glands were isolated and analyzed.ResultsOverexpressing FL CYT-1 isoform resulted in suppression of mammary ductal morphogenesis which was accompanied by decreased number of mammary terminal end buds (TEBs) and Ki-67 positive cells within TEBs, while FL CYT-2 isoform had no effect on ductal growth in pubescent mice. The suppressive ductal phenotype in CYT-1 mice disappeared after mid-pregnancy, and subsequent developmental stages showed no abnormality in mammary gland morphology or function in CYT-1 or CYT-2 transgenic mice. However, sustained expression of FL CYT-1 isoform resulted in formation of neoplastic mammary lesions, suggesting a potential oncogenic function for this isoform.Conclusions Together, we present isoform-specific roles of ERBB4 during puberty and early pregnancy, and reveal a novel oncogenic property of CYT-1 ERBB4. The results may be exploited to develop better therapeutic strategies in breast cancer.
    Breast cancer research: BCR 12/2014; 16(6):501. DOI:10.1186/s13058-014-0501-z · 5.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mammary gland branching morphogenesis and ductal homeostasis relies on mammary stem cell function for the maintenance of basal and luminal cell compartments. The mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of the basal cell compartment are currently unknown. We explored these mechanisms in the basal cell compartment and identified the Co-factor of LIM domains (CLIM/LDB/NLI) as a transcriptional regulator that maintains these cells. Clims act within the basal cell compartment to promote branching morphogenesis by maintaining the number and proliferative potential of basal mammary epithelial stem cells. Clim2, in a complex with LMO4, supports mammary stem cells by directly targeting the Fgfr2 promoter in basal cells to increase its expression. Strikingly, Clims also coordinate basal-specific transcriptional programs to preserve luminal cell identity. These basal-derived cues inhibit epidermis-like differentiation of the luminal cell compartment and enhance the expression of luminal cell-specific oncogenes ErbB2 and ErbB3. Consistently, basal-expressed Clims promote the initiation and progression of breast cancer in the MMTV-PyMT tumor model, and the Clim-regulated branching morphogenesis gene network is a prognostic indicator of poor breast cancer outcome in humans.
    PLoS Genetics 07/2014; 10(7):e1004520. DOI:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004520 · 8.17 Impact Factor