A longitudinal evaluation of the relationship between reproductive status and mood in perimenopausal women
ABSTRACT Mood and reproductive function were prospectively evaluated in asymptomatic premenopausal women to determine whether the onset of depression was temporally linked to the perimenopause.
Twenty-nine asymptomatic, regularly cycling women were monitored longitudinally for an average of 5 years until at least 6 months of amenorrhea occurred. Outcome measures included mood ratings and menstrual diaries completed daily, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and plasma levels of follicle-stimulating hormone obtained at 3-6-month intervals. The number of episodes of depression and their timing relative to the final menstrual period were determined. Differences in outcome measures between women who did and did not become depressed during the perimenopause were determined by Student's t test, chi-square tests, and Fisher's exact test.
The authors observed 11 episodes of new-onset depression in nine of the 29 women. In the 24 months surrounding the last menstrual period nine episodes of depression were observed. Six of the nine women who became depressed during the study had no prior depressive episodes. For the 24 months surrounding the final menses, the risk for onset of depression was 14 times as high as for a 31-year premenopausal period of time. Women who developed depression during the perimenopause were not distinguished from those who remained asymptomatic on the basis of symptom profile, duration of the perimenopause, endocrine measures, or past historical variables.
These preliminary data suggest that events related to the late perimenopause may be associated with an increased susceptibility to develop depression in some women.
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ABSTRACT: Artemisia princeps (AP) is a flowering perennial used as a traditional medicine and dietary supplement across East Asia. No study has yet assessed its effects on synaptic plasticity in hippocampus and much less in a model of ovarian hormone deficiency. We examined the influence of chronic oral AP ethanol extract treatment in ovariectomized rats on the induction of long-term depression in a representative synapse (CA3-CA1) of the hippocampus. Ovariectomized rats demonstrated lower trabecular mean bone mineral densities than sham, validating the establishment of pathology. Against this background of pathology, AP-treated ovariectomized rats exhibited attenuated long-term depression (LTD) in CA1 relative to water-treated controls as measured by increased field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSP) activation averages over the post-stimulation period. While pathological significance of long-term depression (LTD) in ovariectomized rats is conflicting, that AP treatment significantly affected its induction offers justification for further study of its influences on plasticity and its related disorders.03/2015; 24(1):71-83. DOI:10.5607/en.2015.24.1.71
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ABSTRACT: There is evidence that menopausal symptoms manifested at peri-menopause occur less frequently when compared to the symptoms experienced at post-menopause. The aim of this study was to investigate this and to test the hypothesis that depressive symptomatology mediates the relationship between menopausal stage and symptom frequency. This cross-sectional study included 213 women (M age=52 years), of whom 125 were peri- and 88 post-menopausal. Measures comprised the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D) and the Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ) vasomotor symptoms and somatic symptoms subscales. Multiple mediated regression analyses provided evidence that somatic symptoms and vasomotor symptoms were less frequent at post- compared to peri-menopause, and that these differences were mediated by depressive symptomatology. Multivariate effect sizes ranged from small to moderate, and univariate effect sizes were uniformly small with wide confidence intervals. The frequency of vasomotor and somatic symptoms appears to increase with depressed affect. The management of symptoms could include interventions of a psychotherapeutic nature, which may offset this effect, particularly in women for whom depressive symptoms are a feature of the climacteric syndrome. The extent to which depression and the climacteric syndrome may be causally related to one another remains unclear and longitudinal research should further examine the mechanisms of this association. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.Maturitas 03/2015; 289(2). DOI:10.1016/j.maturitas.2015.03.007 · 2.86 Impact Factor