Comparison of the parasitologic efficacy of amodiaquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Bungoma District of western Kenya.

Faculty of Medicine, and Department of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine and AIDS, University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene (Impact Factor: 2.53). 11/2004; 71(5):537-41.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The efficacy of amodiaquine (AQ) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) was assessed in 310 symptomatic children from western Kenya with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. A non-blinded, randomized, 14-day study was performed and parasitologic criteria were used. Of 310 patients included, 238 (77%) completed the study: 120 received AQ and 118 received SP. In those treated with AQ, there were sensitive (S) infections in 107 patients (89.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 82.2, 94.1%), RI resistance in 10 (8.3%, 95% CI = 4.1, 14.8%), RII resistance in 1 (0.8%, 95% CI = 0, 4.6%), and RIII resistance in 2 (1.7%, 95% CI = 0.2, 5.9%). In those treated with SP, there were S infections in 74 patients (62.7%, 95% CI = 53.3, 71.4%), RI resistance in 21 (17.8%, 95% CI = 11.4, 25.9%), RII resistance in 11 (9.3%, 95% CI = 4.7, 16.1%), and RIII resistance in 12 (10.2%, 95% CI = 5.4, 17.1%). Resistance rates were consistently higher in the SP-treated patients (P < 0.001). Resistance to SP in this area has reached such levels that it should no longer be the first-line treatment. Alternative treatment, such as SP plus AQ combination treatment or artemisinin combination treatment, is urgently needed.

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    ABSTRACT: The altered immune response of persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection could result in increased rates of antimalarial treatment failure. We investigated the influence of HIV infection on the response to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine treatment. Febrile adults with Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were treated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and were monitored for 28 days. HIV status and CD4 cell count were determined at study enrollment. Of the adults enrolled in the study, 508 attended all follow-up visits, including 130 HIV-uninfected adults, 256 HIV-infected adults with a high CD4 cell count (> or =200 cells/ micro L), and 122 HIV-infected adults with a low CD4 cell count (<200 cells/ micro L). The hazard of treatment failure at day 28 of follow-up was significantly higher for HIV-infected adults with a low CD4 cell count (20.5%) than for HIV-uninfected adults (7.7%). Anemia (hemoglobin level, <110 g/L) modified the effect of HIV status on treatment failure. When we controlled for fever and parasite density, the hazard of treatment failure for HIV-infected adults with a low CD4 cell count and anemia was 3.4 times higher than that for HIV-uninfected adults (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-7.34). HIV-infected persons with a low CD4 cell count and anemia have an increased risk of antimalarial treatment failure. The response to malaria treatment in HIV-infected persons must be carefully monitored. Proven measures for the control and prevention of malaria must be incorporated into the basic package of services provided by HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome care and treatment programs in malarious areas.
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    Malaria Journal 01/2011; 10:316. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(4):e10016. · 3.73 Impact Factor

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